Gender case studies

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  • Gender
    • Gender Dysphoria
      • Biological explanation
        • Supported by Yalom  (less boyish sons)
      • Psychosocial explanation
        • Supported by Rekers (lack of male role model
    • Biological Explanation
      • Genes
        • supported by Imperato-Mcginley et al (sons to daughters)
        • Challenged by Durkin (not present at birth)
      • Hormones
        • Supported by Yalom (less boyish sons)
        • Challenged by Hines (CAH girls play with boys)
      • Brain
        • Hamann et al (men had more activation in amygdala with sexy photos)
    • Social Influences
      • Peers
        • Supported by Faggot and Leinbach (Displined for masc behaviour yet still showed it)
      • Parents
        • Lytton and Romney (parents praise stereotypical behaviour)
      • Media
        • Huston and Wright (Men portrayed aggressive and powerful, women nurturing)
    • Evolutionary Explanation
      • Wood and Eagly (non industrialised countries men hunted women looked after children)
    • Cultural Influences
      • Support- Mead (dound tribes where women dominant)
      • Support- Hargreaves (reversed roles men weaved women were agricultural producers
      • Challenges- William and Best (universally agreed men=dominant, and independent, women= caring and sociable)
      • Challenge- Barry et al (research across non western cultures, men= self reliant women=nurturing)
    • Psychological Explanation
      • Cognitive Development Theory (Kohlberg)
        • Support- Slaby and Frey (high gender constancy=more time watching same sex model)
        • Support-Frey and Ruble (played with boy/girl toys when gender constancy reached)
      • Gender Schema Theory
        • Support- Martin and Little (preschoolers have stereotypes)
        • Support- Campbell (2-18 months preferred watching same sex babies and 9 month boys preferred boys toys)
        • Challenge- Bauer (doesn't apply to girls, they develop schema later)
        • Challenge- Perry et al (2-5yrs show sex type activities before knowledge of sterotype. Shows innate gender behaviour)
    • Biosocial Explanation
      • Support- Schaffer (shown video of baby crying. Male= agry and female= scared)
      • Support- Smith and Lloyd (played with babie. Boys encouraged independent play, girls encouraged dependent and gentle)
      • Challenge- Reiner and Gearhart (16 males born with no penis. treated as girls. 10 decided to become male again)
      • Challenge- Money (David Reimer)


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