Gender Theorists

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  • Gender Theorists
    • Robin Lakoff - The Deficit Model
      • Hedges
        • Less frequent turns
      • Empty adjectives
        • Avoid coarse language/expletives
        • Tag questions
          • Lack a sense of humour
      • Super-polite forms
        • Indirect requests
          • Intensifiers
    • Jenny Chesire
      • Non standard use of 'has'
        • Multiple negation
      • Non standard use of 'was'
        • Use of 'ain't'
          • Boys use non standard forms more than girls
    • Pamela Fishman
      • Tag questions: used to start and continue conversations with males
      • Conversational shitwork: women initiate conversations and keep them going
    • Deborah Tannen - Difference Model
    • Jennifer Coates - Difference Model
      • Girls and boys belong to same sex friendship groups when growing up, so they develop different ways of speaking
        • Scandal: judging behaviour of others
          • Bitching: complaining about role, not people
            • Chatting: intimate topics
      • House talk: female role as occupation
    • Jane Pilkington - The Difference Model
      • In same sex conversations were collaberative
        • In same sex conversations were less collaborative, less complimentary and less supportive than women
    • Don Zimmerman and Candace West
      • Interrupt more
        • Seek to dominate talk
          • Greater turns of speaking and spoke for greater lengths
    • Peter Trudgill
      • Covert prestige: low prestige pronunciation - tough and down to earth
    • Byng and Bergwall
      • Avoid gender polarisation
      • Recognises individual differences
      • Social context helps us understand gendered lamguage behaviour
    • William Labov
      • Overt prestige: hyper correctness, preference for standard forms amongst all classes


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