gender inequality

  • Created by: a.holden
  • Created on: 03-01-18 19:38
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  • Gender inequality.
    • income and wealth
      • 22% of women, compared to 14% of men, have a persistent low income.
      • approximatley 70% of people in national minmum wage jobs are women
      • it is estimated that for each year a mother is absent from the workplace, her future wage reduces by 5%
      • women comprise more than 50% of the worlds population but own only 1% of the worlds wealth.
    • inequalities in poverty
      • one in four women will be living below the poverty line when they retire, compared to 12% of men.
      • women make up half of the worlds population but represent 70% of the worlds poor
      • chant (2011) 'time poverty' as a result of the multiple areas of work that they are engaged with, many of which are unpaid or underpaid.
      • 52% of children living in lone-parent families are poor- and 90% of lone-parent families are headed by females
      • womens budget group (2005) mothers frequently go without food, clothing and warmth in order to protect children from the full impact of inadequate income
      • the trussell trust (2014) also found that food poverty affects women and men differently, with many women going hungry in order to feed their children.
    • social mobility
      • Li and Devine (2011) women are less likely to be upwardly mobile.
      • Heath and Li (2014) upward mobility. black caribbean men (39.3%) women (67.3%). chinese women (46.8%) men 59.6%).
      • savage (2011) atudied social mobility in 2000s. men 40% more likely to climb the career ladder
    • feminism
      • liberal
        • focused on obtaining equal opportunities and rights for males and females in such places as work.
        • oakly (1974) gender role of socialisation in the family is important area where gender inequalities take place.
          • postmodernists: no longer a clear set of gender norms for children to be socialised into
          • sees children as passive recipients to socialisation.
        • radical and marxists: fails to say how males and females hold different levels of power in the family and society.
        • overly optimistic and positive about their achievements.
      • marxist
        • social class affects the life chances of women
        • feeley (1972) the family teaches children to submit ti a oirm of parental authority that is patriarchal. preconditioned.
        • benston (1972) a wife keeps her husband in good working order for the capitalist society.
        • ansley (1976)  women are a 'safety valve'  and the 'takers of ****' as husbands return from being exploited at work.
        • too much emphasis on social class and not paying attention to other factors

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