Gender inequality (in education, health and work)

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  • Gender inequality
    • Employment
      • Women form 47% of the UK workforce
      • 5.85 million women working part-time compared to 2.11 million men
      • 1 in 5 women are carers
      • Dunscombe & Marsden: Triple shift - women have to do paid work, domestic work and emotion work
      • Dual labour market theory: many women in secondary market
      • Glass/concrete ceiling: women can get to a certain level, but cannot rise to top positions
        • e.g 67 of FTSE 250 company boards are all-male, and there are more CEOs named John than there are female CEOs
      • Vertical & Horizontal segregation
      • Gender pay gap
      • Beechey: Reserve army of labour
    • Health
      • women suffer higher levels of illness than men and frequent the health services more often (however this is inflated by pregnancy, chilcare and longevity)
      • Women are more likely to suffer from mental illnesses, especially depression and anxiety
      • Men are more likely to commit suicide than women
      • Women more likely to suffer from eating disorders, likely due to pressure from media
      • Young males engage in risky behaviour, thus increasing their risk of accidents or death
      • Men are more likely alcoholics and drug addicts
    • Education
      • Girls of all ethnic backgrounds do better than boys up to post-16
      • Subject choice is largely gendered, with girls being pressured to pick subjects like the arts
      • Girls are more likely to stay on in education past 16
      • Sharpe: girls' aspirations have changed
      • Bedroom culture
      • Initiatives within schools, e.g "Girls into Science and Technology
      • Jackson: threat of losing traditional identities had led boys to develop laddish behaviour + anti-school subcultures
      • Negative consequences of single-parenthood for boys
      • Introduction of coursework
      • Willis: anti-school subcultures stemming from resisting capitalism
      • Francis: schools are male orientated, boys take dominate classroom and playground. boys get more attention from teachers and girls are not pushed to their full potential
      • Jackson: Girls adopting laddish behaviours traditionally associated with boys


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