Gender in Buddhism

  • Created by: lw052158
  • Created on: 30-10-19 14:49
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  • Buddhism and Gender
    • 1. Views of women in the schools of buddhism
      • Siddhartha originally said that both men AND women could reach enlightenment
        • But for women to become a female monk (Bhikkuhni) They must follow the extra eight Garudharmas
      • Theravbada normally very equal - only fully fledged Bhikkuni can ordain a new one
        • However this caused issues as after the 13th century Bhikkuni died out so no new ones can be ordained.
        • However in Mahyana buddhims this is not an issue as Bkksuni (female nun) can be orrdained as normal.
      • but it is still very sexist in both schools - no matter how advanced a female monk is they must always be subservient to male monk.
      • Dragon Kings Daughter - from Lotus sutra - refuses idea that a woman can become enlightened - but this story may ne altered - as apart from her changing - the story pushes Bodhisattva practice can achieve enlightenment for women
    • 2. Reasons for these differing ideas
      • Buddhism is product of traditional Asian society - women were subservient to men  - This has therefore influenced ideology and practice.
        • In India it was inferior to be a women than a man
      • Philosophically texts gender lacks inherent reality - philosophical levels accepts equality but in practice, ritual and society this is not the case.
      • Bernard Faure - 'Buddhism is indeed relentlessly misogynist - but it is one of the most flexible and open to contradiction'
      • Sakyadhita (daughters of the Buddha) aim was to work together to benefit Buddhist women, to reduce gender injustice, and awaken women to their potential for awakening the world
    • 3. Issue of Female monasticism
      • Theravada - head female monks went missing in Thailand meaning no new female monks can be ordained
      • Mahayana - women have more 8 garudhammas on top of the mens 227 rules as well
        • howveer these 8 Muhammadans are an alleged convo between buddha and anada - but written later as buddha disregarded caste system and always states themm as equals.
        • The eight rules how they cannot scold a Bhikku and always be respectful
    • japans Views
      • Buddhism came around the 6th century
      • over 90 million count themselves as buddhists in japan
      • 1175 Pure land arose and 1191 zen arose
      • after WW2 righst changed, but before women were the housewives and mothers and not to work
        • Tokyo medical uni owned uo to changign exam results to stop amount of women to get in
      • thehy have little direct awarness on the matter - a lot of views from india were carried over to japan - such as three obedince - similar to jaoans orginal three submissions of a women
      • in 1872 - goverment issued an edict on any remaioning practise of female exclusion shall eb aboloshed


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