Gender identities and the media

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  • Representation of Gender in the Media.
    • General features.
      • The male gaze.
      • Under-representation of women in the industry.
      • Under-representation and stereotyping of women in media content.
      • Patriarchal ideology and the symbolic annihilation of women.
    • The media and social construction of gender differences.
      • Connell: Gender identities are, in part, constructed by the media reproducing hegemonic and culturally dominant ideology and stereotypes of gender.
      • Wolf: The Beauty myth
      • Girl Guiding UK: Many girls use a limited range of role models from media and celebrities (ages 7-21)
    • Female representation and stereotyping
      • The Wives and Girlfriends
      • The Sex Object
      • The Supermum
      • The Angel
      • The Ball Breaker
      • The Victim
      • The cult of femininity: Teen magazines traditionally prepare girls for feminized adult roles and stereotypes.
    • Male representation and stereotypes.
      • The Joker
      • The Jock
      • The Strong Silent Type
      • The Big Shot
      • The Action Hero
      • The Buffoon
      • Men typically have a wider range of representations but they're typically shown as successful and strong as well as the main character.
      • Gilmore: "The provider, the protector and the impregnator".
    • Theoretical Explanations.
      • Liberal Feminism
        • Media, family and education: social construction of gender roles.
        • Representation of women in domestic and/or sexual roles has a limiting effect on female behaviour and aspirations.
        • Images, stereotypes and equality in media and the industry are slow to change (Women in higher roles)
      • Marxist Feminism
        • Media owners want to attract a profit from viewers and advertisers
        • Marketing strategies that convice women of the need for these stereotype and, consequently, products being advertised.
      • Radical Feminism
        • Media is patriarchal and reproduces the oppression of women, encouraging them to conform to the beauty myth and the male gaze.
        • Media-generated stereotypes of femininity discourage women from making the most of their opportunities.
      • Popular Femninism
        • The media is part of a general movement focused on the ideology of "Girl Power"
    • Changing media representations
      • Male
        • Gauntlett: more range of representations of masculinity
        • Some lifestyle magazines go overboard.
      • Female
        • More emphasis on independence and sexual freedom
        • Inness: women in tv and films are being represented more as powerful 'tough girls'

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