Gender Dysphoria

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  • Gender dysphoria
    • Social Learning theory
      • Direct - Where children are specifically rewarded for displaying gender-appropriate behaviours
      • Indirect learning - Learning gender-appropriate behaviours through vicarious reinforcement
      • Agents of socialisation - People who you learn gender behaviours from eg. parents. They may cause gender dysphoria through positive reinforcement
      • Mediational processes: Attention, retention, motivation, motor reproduction
      • Smith and Lloyd (1978) - Boys were encouraged to be adventurous compared to girls who are encouraged to be passive
      • Perry and Bussey (1979) - Fruit picking, children copied same sex role models
      • Lack of agents of socialisation - Reckers: 70 patients with gender dysphoria who didn't have a male role model
      • Distorted parental attitudes
      • Bad Upbringing - Coates (1991)
    • Biological explanations
      • Gender formed by genetic makeup
      • Testosterone, Oestrogen and Oxytocin
      • Atypical genes: XO - Turner's, XXY - Kleinfelter's
      • Brain structure
      • Hare et al - Feminised genotypes in transgender women
      • Hormones - Androgen insensitivity syndrome is when the body does  not respond to testosterone causing genitals to not develop


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