Gender Differences in Achievement

  • Created by: Lmm119
  • Created on: 03-05-17 17:24
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  • Gender Differences
    • Internal Factors
      • Equal opportunities policy. The belief that boys and girls are both equal in school is now a mainstream ideas that is held by teachers.
        • GIST (Girls Ito Science and Technology) and WISE (Women Into Science and Engineering) are policies to encourage girls to work in these areas.
        • 1988 national curriculum removed a source of gender inequality. It made boys and girls study most of the same subjects.
        • Barriers in education have been removed so boys and girls can achieve the same. It is based more on meritocracy so someone who works hard will achieve more.
      • Positive Role Models. Theres been an icrease in female teachers. This provides a role model as they have a position of authority. However, some say the rise in female teachers highly feminises schools which can impact boys.
      • GCSE and Coursework.
        • Mitsos and Browne say how coursework has benefitted girls. It allows girls to spend more time on work, take more presentation care, deadlines, materials and equipment prepared.
          • These have helped with GCSEs and Alevels for introduction.
        • GCSEs involve more oral skills. This is seen to benefit girls as hey have more developed language skills.
      • Teacher Attention.
        • Spender. Found teachers spend more attention on boys.
        • French observed the classroom and found teachers had similar amounts of attention to both genders for achievement. But found boys received more attention due to negative behaviour.
        • Teachers can often respond more positively to girls as they're seen as cooperative. Boys are seen as potentially disruptive. The interaction with girls can boost their self esteem and achievement levels.
      • A barrier to achievement, especially in girls, has been removed by stereotypes being removed from learning material.
        • In 1970s and 80s women in books were portrayed as housewives and mothers. Since the 80s these stereotypes have been challenged and show more positive views.
      • Selection and League tables.
        • Schools are more competitive now for league tables. Girls are seen as more desirable to recruit as they are seen to achieve more in exams.
        • Jackson. League tables have increased the opportunities for girls. Higher achieving girls are attracted to higher achieving schools, where low achieving boys aren't. Girls are more likely to be recruited to schools.
        • Boys are more likely to be seen as liable students, that can affect their rise in league tables.
    • External Factors
      • Impact of Feminism. Changes in society due to feminism are shown in media images and messages.
        • McRobbie's. Compared girls magazines in the 1970s and 1990s. In 1970s these emphasised the importance of getting married. In 1990s they focused on self-esteem and being independent. This and personal choice is also represented now for young women.
        • These changes can affect girls self-esteem and self-image and their ambitions. It  could explain reasons for educational achievement.
      • Changes in the Family.
        • Increase in divorce rate.Suggestsits unwise to reply on husband so encourage girls to be more independent and get qualifications.
        • Increase in cohabitation and decrease in first marriages.
        • Increase in lone parents. Usually female, create a role model for girls and suggests they need qualifications for independence and a well-paid job.
        • Smaller families.
        • The changes are affecting girls attitudes towards education.
      • Changes in women's employment.
        • 1970s equal pay act. 1975 sex discrimination act.
        • Employment changed from 47% in 1959 to over 70% in 2007.
        • Pay gap between genders gone from 30% to 17%.
        • Changes have encouraged girls to see greater career opportunities and want to gain qualifications for it. More incentive.
      • Girls changing ambitions.
        • Sharpe interviewed girls in the 1970s and 1990s to compare how girls see themselves and their future.
        • Girls in 1970s had low aspirations and saw no future in education as it wasn't seen as feminine.
        • 1990s girls saw their future as more independent with a career rather than a husband.


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