Gender and Identity

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  • Gender and Identity
    • The family
      • Anne Oakley developed four ways in which the family affects gender socialisation
      • Manipulation - parents often encourage 'normal' behaviour and interests for their child's sex
      • Canalisation - parents channel their child's interests in particular direction i.e. boys play with Lego, girls play with barbies
      • Verbal appelation - 'what an angel' (girl), 'what a big strong boy'
      • Different activities - parents may involve children in different aspects of the house i.e. girls in the kitchen, boys in the garden
    • Secondary socialisation
      • Girls and boys receive different forms of teacher attention at school
      • Subject choice is still gendered
      • McRobbie - female teenage magazines reinforce conventional notions of feminity
      • Wolf - the media creates an unobtainable 'ideal image' for women reinforcing the notion that women should look good for men
    • Gender stereotypes
      • 19% of men are employed as managers or senior officials
        • Only 11% of women are in the same positions
      • There is a 'glass ceiling' in place to stop women from reaching the top jobs
    • Changing gender roles
      • For women...
        • Sue Sharpe - women now view career ambitions as more important than motherhood etc.
        • More women go out to work
        • Divorce rates are rising
          • Giving rise to a new financially independent female identity
      • For men...
        • The 'new man' - house husband
        • Heavy industry and traditionally male jobs have declined
        • Mac an Ghail - man are experiencing a 'crisis of masculinity'
    • Masculinity in the media
      • Rutherford - images of men in the media are now being used in traditionally female ways
      • There has been an increase in marketing for men's cosmetics and toiletries
      • Postmodernists - both men and women see leisure and consumption as key ways of shaping their identity


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