Gender bias - Issues and debates

  • Created by: Georgia
  • Created on: 03-03-19 13:40
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  • Gender bias in psychology (
    • Universality All research applies  equally to both genders
    • Androcentrism Men's behaviour is the norm; women's behaviour is atypical
      • Research Tavris (1993) Most cultures take male behaviour as standard, women make the decision to behave the same or differently
      • Evaluation DSM-III-R Masochistic personality developed; self-sacrifice, martyr behaviours; female-associated and so pathologises women
    • Alpha bias Exaggerating and overestimating differences between the genders
      • Example Freud's theory of moral development; women have weaker moral code and don't fully develop superego; suggests liable to immoral behaviour
        • Example Socio-biological theory; men go for youth and beauty, women go for wealth and status; suggests over-emphasised differences
    • Beta bias Ignores and minimises differences between the genders
      • Example   Lee and Harley (2012) Established "tend and befriend" for women; suggests that original "fight or flight" response theory was beta biased
    • Implications
      • Creates misleading assumptions about women's behaviour
        • Fails to challenge discriminatory practices (some say it is scientific justification to deny women working opportunities)
      • Male psychologists tend to get their work published
      • Research Denmark (1988) Psychological research may aid institutional sexism; not much female inclusion


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