Social Inequality - Gender

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  • Gender
    • female disadvantage
      • work
        • Equal Pay 1970, gender pay gap 19.7% in 2013
        • Grimshaw & Rubery - women paid less for same performance in same jobs as men
        • Ginn - employers attitudes contribute to the confining of women in the secondary labour market
      • education
        • Stanworth - looked at colleges, teachers found it more difficult to remember girls names, girls received less classroom attention
        • since 80's girls have outperformed boys, but hidden curriculum leads to prejudice in school system
        • Kelly - masculine bias in science textbooks which depict women are passive or invisible; female scientists ignored
      • family
        • Dunscombe & Marsden - women perform triple shift (paid, emotional, domestic)
        • Oakley - found 70% of housewives are dissatisfied with housework, they dislike the low status
        • 1950's nuclear family ideology led to oppressing gender roles still evident in society
      • poverty
        • Lister - feminisation of poverty - women represent a huge percentage of the worlds poor
        • 2002 stats show women are more likely to live in poverty than men in every EU country par Sweden
        • Flaherty - women are more likely to experience poverty due to lone parenthood, minimum wage, childcare responsibility
    • male disadvantage
      • education
        • since the 80's male attainment has been declining
        • Harris - working class boys are exposed to gender regimes: macho males with no regard for authority (i.e. teachers)
        • Epstein - working class boys are likely to be harassed or labelled as 'sissies' if they appear to be swots
      • media
        • hypodermic needle model - audience passively receives the values that the media injects into them
        • Easthope - hollywood films in particular transmit idea that masculinity is based on strength and aggression
          • this sets unrealistic standards for men and portrays an ideal which many men may not want to achieve
      • work
        • men strive to achieve hegemonic masculinity, cant due to de-industrialised societies
        • Mac an Ghail - crisis of masculinity caused due to lack of manual jobs and feminisation of the workplace
        • Winlow - globalisation led to a decline in manual abour, they are now bouncers and commit crime to regain status
      • crime
        • Graham & Bowling - chivalry thesis - women tend to be treated more leniently in court than men
        • men are x4 more likely to be found guilty or convicted in court compared to women 


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