Gender

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  • Created by: rhallett
  • Created on: 05-03-16 17:02
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  • Gender
    • Biological Explanations
      • Genes and Hormones
        • X+Y=Male. Develop testes=testosterone= Organising effects to develop 'male traits' like shaping the hypothalamus - the sexually dimorphic areas being larger in males than female
        • X+X=Female. Develop ovaries=oestrogen=Organising effects to develop 'female traits et'. Puberty=another surge of sex hormones to influence child's gender
        • Supporting Evidence: +CAH girls +Female monkeys +Swaab +Bruce Reimer
          • Conclusion: Reductionist; ignores other important factors known to influence gender like family and culture.
    • Evolutionary Explanations
      • Trivers PIT
        • Gender evolves due to different amount of parental investment. Males=little effort & investment; many offspring;not choosy;promiscuous. As Fs are choosy, Ms are competitive
        • Females=lots effort & investment;1 child/year; carry, feed, rear; very choosy; need mate with good genes to ensure survival of young
        • Supporting Evidence: +Holloway; Humans males are normally 1.15x bigger than females. +Clark & Hatfield; students on campus 75% Ms Yes to sex, 0% Fs No. +Daly & Wilson; married men more likely to want to cheat than married women
      • Buss Physical Attractiveness
        • Ms & Fs have evolved to be attracted to different things: Fs prefer older Ms who can provide resources and protection. Ms prefer younger attractive Fs, fertile and cope with childbearing
        • Supporting Evidence: +Buss' Questionnaire 37 cultures asked mate preferences. 90% of cultures Fs valued earning potential more than men; Ms valued attractiveness more than Fs. Ms wanted Fs younger than them.   +Hines found M monkeys preferred playing with boys toys like trucks than girls toys like dolls
        • Conclusion: Reductionist; ignores other factors known to influence gender like culture. Ev. Explan. are deterministic, suggets humans have no free will in gender behaviour
    • Social Explanations
      • Operant Conditioning
        • Gender approp. behaviour is pos. reinforced, thus repeated but cross-gender play is criticised. Process begins at an early age, gradually shapes gender, includes things like toys bought and played with *
        • Supporting Evidence: +Lytton & Romney; meta-analysis 27k, children, encouraged to do diff play and chores; boys outdoors; girls domestic +Durkin; peers shape gender; kids as young as 3 criticised cross-sex play    +Smith & Lloyd; Baby X
      • Social Learning Theory
        • Bandura's theory; SL occurs when children are exposed to role models that they observe and imitate. Children are highly selective; choosing dominant and powerful role models; more likely to imitate behaviour that is rewarded - vicarious reinforcement **
        • Supporting Evidence: +Notel; Canadian town with no TV, compared with Multitel, a town with TV, Notel has fewer gender stereotypes. Notel children developed them once they got TV. +Morgan; children who watch more TV have more gender stereotypes
      • Culture
        • Mead; Spent 2 years studying tribes in New Guinea in 1930s and found that different tribes had different Male and Female roles.
          • EG In the Mundugamor tribe, female were masculine; gender differences are due to cultural and social factors; cultural determinism
      • Conclusion: To focus on social factors is simplistic, tries to reduce gender to 1 level of analysis. Ignores other factors like biology eg Female monkeys but animal research and ethical issues
    • Cultural Explanations
      • Mead; Spent 2 years studying tribes in New Guinea in 1930s and found that different tribes had different Male and Female roles.Cultural determinism
        • 1) Thambuli; Ms were feminine; Fs were masculine 2)Mundugamor; Ms &Fs were masculine; violent and power-seeking. 3) Arapesh; Ms and Fs were feminine; gentle and responsive
          • Opposing Evidence: -Mead eventually changed her mind; though concluded differences in gender, all males were more aggressive suggesting shared gender roles across culture
            • -Freeman suggetss Mead was misled by RPs in previous research; wasn't reliable -Mead's methods no longer seen as scientific
              • +Buss; questionnaire,37 cultures. +Williams & Best; studied stereotypes across 28 cultures. RPs had to sort adjectives fitting M or F. Broad agreement between cultures
                • Conclusion: Culture does influence but to focus is reductionist. Ignores other factors like biology EG female monkeys but animal research and ethical issues
      • Operant Conditioning: See *
      • Social Learning: See **
    • Psych. Explan. Cognitive Development Theory
      • Kohlberg; gender shaped by mental processes, not social environ. though it does play a part.
        • Gender Identity (2.5-3.5) child labels itself and others M and F; limited understanding; think can grow up another gender based on appearance
          • Gender Stability (3.5-4.5) child knows gender will not change, may still think gender is based on appearance like hair length or clothing
            • Gender Constancy (4.5-7) child knows gender is constant and is not affected by appearance. Linked to child's ability to 'conserve', to understand some things may change in appearance but stay the same
              • Child now has a complete understanding its gender and wants to behave in gender approp. ways so pays more attention to same sex role models.
                • +McConaghy; children aged 3.5 used clothes and hair length to identify the sex of a doll. +Slaby & Frey showed 2-5 yr olds a silent films of 2 role models baking a cake or changing a wheel. Children in GC spent longer watching the same sex role model
                  • -K's theory predicts children who haven't reached GC aren't interested in gender roles but this isn't true bc: -Bussey; children aged 4 felt good about playing with gender appropriate toys and bad about cross-play.
                    • -Bradbard gave 3 yrs old gender neutral items like a burglar alarm and maths puzzle and told if they were boys or girls toys. Children paid more attention to the same gender object and better at remembering them later.
                      • -63 2/3 yr old Canadian toddlers decided which dolls should do various gendered tasks like shaving or vacuuming, children chose the 'right' task
                        • Conclusion: Cognition does play a part; but to focus is simplistic; Ignores other factors like biology EG Female monkeys but animal research and ethical issues
    • Psych. Explan. Gender Schema Theory
      • Gender Schema Theory; gender becomes important to children earlier than Kohlberg argues
        • Once child knows its M/F (2-3) develops a gender schema; set of ideas about gender. Child actively seeks out info from environ.about right behaviours of their gender. Boys pay attention to 'boys' toys and ignore the-outgroup 'girls' toys. Children are influenced by parent gender schemas
          • Once child has developed schema, toys and activities become categorised, child doesn't want to take part in activities linked to other gender and ignores info that doesn't fit with their schemas
            • Supporting Evidence: +Bussey +Canadian toddlers +Bradbard
              • Opposing Evidence:          -Kohlberg        -Slabey & Frey
        • Conclusion: Cognition does play a role but to focus is simplistic; ignores other factors like biology
    • Biosocial Approach Inc. Gender Dysphoria
      • John Money
        • Argued that bio factors like sex chromo. and hormones develop M or F sex charac. and influence temperament. Physical charac determine social label, how its socialised and shapes gender.
          • Children are essentially gender neutral at birth, can be socialised as M or F, as long as this is before they are 2; social factors are more important than bio ones
          • +Money & Hampson; intersex children, ambiguous genitals; reared successfully as different gender than biological sex. These children would have had abnormal hormone levels prenatally - could have affected their gender
            • -Bruce Reimer
              • BUT late reassignment, family trauma, Reimer had a male twin
      • Alice Eagley
        • Evolution has given Ms and Fs physical traits and society different roles; affecting their psychology. EG females are more suited to childcare, psych diffs emerge; women more caring; society shapes psych not bio
          • This is known as 'Social Constructionism'; an invention of a culture or society, not fixed or universal
            • +Lytton & Romney meta analysis 27k kids, boys outdoors, girls domestic
              • -Quandango; female monkeys
                • BUT animal research, ethical issues
      • Gender Dysphoria
        • GD can be explained by both bio and soc. factors supporting the Biosocial appropach.
          • +Dutch study - Swaab
          • +Stoller; males with GD were unusually close to their mothers which led them to identify as female
        • Conclusion: Biosoc. approach is not reductionist as it explains gender in terms of both biological and social factors and doesn't try to reduce it to one level of analysis
    • Gender Dysphoria
      • Abnormal Prenatal Hormones
        • +CAH girls +Female monkeys +GD emerges as young as 2; too young for the child to acquire GD from the environment.
      • Pollutants
        • +Poll. containing oestrogen can disrupt male sexual development. Dutch questionnaire found the sons of mothers exposed to Dioxins had more feminine play
      • Biological Factors
        • +Dutch research carried out by Swaab...-v small sample size, taking F hormones which may have altered brain structure
      • Socialisation
        • Idea that GD arises from childhood trauma or maladaptive parenting, may encourage child to identify as the wrong sex/give them abnormal roles
          • +Coates; boy developed GD as a defense mechanism to his mother's depression following an abortion, trauma may have led to cross-gender fantasies reducing his anxiety. +Stoller; interviewed boys with GD and found they were abnormally close with their mothers; GD due to distorted relationship w/ mothers
      • Conclusion: clearly evidence that a range of factors play a part in GD including nature ones linked to biology and nurture ones with the environment
  • Gender Dysphoria
    • Abnormal Prenatal Hormones
      • +CAH girls +Female monkeys +GD emerges as young as 2; too young for the child to acquire GD from the environment.
    • Pollutants
      • +Poll. containing oestrogen can disrupt male sexual development. Dutch questionnaire found the sons of mothers exposed to Dioxins had more feminine play
    • Biological Factors
      • +Dutch research carried out by Swaab...-v small sample size, taking F hormones which may have altered brain structure
    • Socialisation
      • Idea that GD arises from childhood trauma or maladaptive parenting, may encourage child to identify as the wrong sex/give them abnormal roles
        • +Coates; boy developed GD as a defense mechanism to his mother's depression following an abortion, trauma may have led to cross-gender fantasies reducing his anxiety. +Stoller; interviewed boys with GD and found they were abnormally close with their mothers; GD due to distorted relationship w/ mothers
    • Conclusion: clearly evidence that a range of factors play a part in GD including nature ones linked to biology and nurture ones with the environment

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