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  • Gender
    • 1C androgyny and measuring androgyny
      • androgyny- balance of masc and fem characteristics
      • Bem- measuring androgyny, suggested mac and fem were independent not on a scale. 40 undergraduate students rated characteristics as desirable for a man/woman. masc- dominant, fem- compassionate, neutral- jealous. requires P to rate characteristics on 7 point scale of 'never true of me' to 'always true of me'. low score of both= undifferentiated. high on both= androgynous
        • high correlation- 0.9 in replication in 2 sets of scores-high reliability. weak correlation in her's and other's scales (she may be measuring something dif). developed 40yrs ago- later in 2001 only words masc/fem were seen as masc/fem. Adams & Sherer- argue psychological health improved for masc males and females rather than a balance (Bem underestimates cultural factors)
    • 2A chromosomes and hormones in sex and gender
      • have 23 pairs of chromosomes. 22 identical for males and females, 23rd determines ex. egg=only X, sperm=X/Y.
      • 6-8 weeks after conception- F & M embryo identical, capacity for M or F reproductive systems. 8 weeks- gene of Y causes release of androgens. testosterone= testes, absence of T= ovaries. puberty- pituitary gland releases growth hormones, FSH and Lh stimulate testes and ovaries, .
      • oxytocin- produced by hypothalamus. trigger labour. thought to be involved in nurturing behav. released when breastfeeding claimed underlies sex difs in social behav
      • Lutchmava et al- amount of foetal testosterone in amniotic fluid, observed interaction between 29 girls and 41 boys and their parents at 1y/os
        • neg correlation in eye contact from children and level of utero T. suggests behav associated with girls
          • method of measuring T objective but correlation isnt cause and effect. eye contact may've already been conditioned. possible gender bias from observer. Maccoby & Jacklin- evidence greater for verbal skills of girls weak and only applies to very young children. conc= utero androgen levels can affect more than reproductive organs
      • Goozen et al- 35 F to M transgender and 15 M to F, administered androgens to Fs. associated with higher aggression, sexual arousability and spatial ability. did opposite
        • results not replicated in placebo trials. ps may've been reacting to expected effects. may be keen to adopt behav of new gender
      • Eisenegger et al- women with T injections behav more fairly. women who THOUGHT got T more unfair. double blind experiment-cause and effect
      • animal studies- gave F rats M hormones to adopt M mating positions, similar effects in rhesus monkeys who are similar to humans- degree of control impossible, post mortems suggest difs in the SDN to humans. led to theories oxytocin moderates stress in Fs
      • Reimer- circumcison went wrong. surgery and hormones to be raised as a girl. killed himself at 33 returning to life as a man- pre eminence of chromosomal sex
      • Batista family- children appeared as girls at birth. increase in T at puberty led to emergence of M reproductive organs. no difficulty adapting- dominance of DNA. transition may've been eased may patriarchal culture
    • 2B atypical sex chromosome patterns
      • Klinefelter's syndrome- boys with extra X chromosome (XXY). affects 1/500. sterility and small testes, may be subtle. weaker muscle, taller, less body hair, breast growth and less interested in sex. noticed at puberty. reading speech and auditory issues
      • Turner's syndrome- girls missing X chromosome (X0). affects 1/2,500. short and webbed necks, low set ears, swollen hands and feet, ovaries don't develop. hormonal treatment for breast and periods
      • A03: physical characteristics support bio view of sex and gender. Turner's more likely yo be identified at birth Vs boys not til puberty- those studied may have more severe symptoms and not representative of the syndrome, Turner's more likely to have hormonal treatment so difficult to identify chromosomal attributes.
        • A03 2.0- socially sensitive- used as bias e.g. parents expect poorer school performance. difficult to identify psycho traits- some SLT. practical applications e.g. hormone therapies


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