Gender

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  • Gender
    • Robin Lakoff's Deficit theory
      • Women lack something so they use:
        • Empty adjectives (lovely, adorable)
        • Direct quotations and intensifiers (so, very, really)
        • Apologise more and use more model verbs
        • Tag questions
        • Special lexicon (baby blue instead of blue)
        • Polite forms (Can you, will you)
        • Use question intonations in declarative statements (What day is it? Sunday?)
        • Fillers and hedges
      • Male Language is more prestigious, stronger and more desirable
      • Women are brought up to act like 'ladies'
    • Zimmerman and West's Dominance Theory
      • Men have more power than women as men interrupts more
      • Mixed gender conversations showed men are more likely to interrupt
        • 11 conversations - 46 interuptions by men and 2 interuptions by women
          • Geoffrey Beattie disagrees and says it can be only 1 man interrupting many times
    • Deborah Tannen's Difference Theory
      • Men vs Women
        • Status vs Support
        • Advice vs understanding
        • Information vs feelings
        • Independence vs intimacy
        • Orders vs proposals
        • Conflict vs compromise
        • Report vs Rapport
      • Men and women belong to subcultures and preferances
      • Avoids blaming men for being dominant and avoid suggesting women are inferior
    • Janet Holmes
      • Tag questions are used to be polite
        • Challenges Lakoff
      • Men prefer a more competitive style
      • Women give more compliments compared to men
      • Women prefer a cooperative style
      • Men use language to obtain an give information compared to women keeping in touch with others
    • Lesley Milroy
      • Density is the number of connections people have
      • Open and closed networks
        • Closed network means you have good close relationship to everyone and you know them well
        • Open means you don't know everyone or are close to everyone
    • Jenny Cheshire
      • Analysed teen speech in boys and girls
        • Boys used more non standard forms than girls
        • Identitfies 11 non standard features and measured their frequency in boys and girls
          • "me names, has to do, you was, it ain't got no, are you the ones what hit him, you ain't no boss, I come down yesterday"
        • Children that approved of criminal activity were more likely to use non standard forms but boys more so
      • Supports Trudgill's work
    • Peter Trudgill
      • Men tend to under report their use of non standard forms, marking themselves as using it when they didn't
      • Across social classes, men tend to use more non standard pronunciation
        • in "lower middle class" and the "upper working class" the differences between men's and women's usage of the standard forms were greatest formal speech
        • Identifying these classes as most susceptible to the prestige of the RP form, with women leading the way on this front
      • Women over report their use of standard forms
        • Implies women wish to sound more standard
      • 1974 Norwich study looking at how they pronounce the suffix 'ing'
      • Differentiated between relaxed and careful speech in order to assess participants awareness of their own accents as well as how they wishes to sound
        • Showed the non standard pronunciation quickly declines
    • Goddard & Paterson
      • Boys' toys are learning design and construction skills: trucks, cars
      • Girls' toys are preparing them for domestic role: doll houses, kitchen, babies
    • Miller & Swift
      • Non parallel treatments
        • Women are 'girls' but men are still 'men'
        • Women by their relationships to men but not the other way round
        • Fixed collocations where the male representative comes first
          • "he and she"
          • "husband and wife"
          • "Men and women"
        • Women by appearances: men by achievements
    • Morgan
      • Women are spontaneous, cooperative, nurturing
      • Men are aggressive, exploitative, rational
    • Overt Marking
      • Unmarked - original
        • Lion, master, waiter, host
      • Marked - way it's changed
        • Lioness, mistress, waitress, hostess

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