gender inequalities crime and deviance

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  • Created on: 21-02-16 19:52
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  • Women and men unqual within families- family organization contributes towards gender inequality- distribution of money within households leave women short of cash - low income households money is directed at men and children so women sacrafice for their families
    • OS- measure income by households hiding the fact that women have lower income and may not be given equal share of income if male is breadwinner
      • Scullion and Hillyard found women in poverty more likely to economise on food-42% women sacrafice food and clothing so they can provide more for their male counterparts and children
        • Payne and Pantazis- Breadline Britain suvey- men and women have a different understanding of poverty-men view money that women spend on children as being part of the women's own spending money
          • Glendinning + Millar- women may be partners of poor men and ignored in their own right
            • Craig and Glenndinning- women do not heat the home when they are alone to save money for their families
              • Critisicm: loss of income was accounted for-EPl introduced in gender equality -G.E reinforced by Gender Equality Duty  and Equality act
                • Wage gaps between men and women highest in European Union
                  • Grimshaw and Rubery : point of 2 elements where women are underevaluated in their work-> women paid less for same performance in same job role
                    • Men and Women often do not work in the same occupations for example nursing is female dominated and engineering is male dominated
                      • Men + women in same occupations : women in lower level job compared to that of men and are more likely to work under the supervision of men
                        • Peter Hain confirmed plants that would require all lone parents to look for a job once their child reaches the age of 7, from 2010 women encouraged back into work once child reaches 5yrs of age
                          • Criticism: Arber and Cooper- women are more likely to be in low status employment -married, widowed or divorced women likely to be responsible for caring - disruptin employment records
                            • EHRC: part time pay gap is 34.5% - family and parenting institute found more women work part time after having children - 38% of women with dependent children
                              • Women and girl's domestic duties may lead to poverty
                                • Oakley- through socialisation women are carers , inequality in young females are often experinces to women in later life-unable to focus on full time careers
                                  • Older women have 24% chance of living in poverty due to reduced life chances by structural and social gender inequalities
                                    • Lone parent organisation 'GINDERBREAD' 20% of single and divorced live in persistent poverty compared with 5% of coupled households
                                      • Men reluctant to pay 1st partners and children when supporting 2nd family
                                        • Poverty is an issue for women when they become elderly because they have not had uninterrupted eomployment histories due to pregnancy and they have not paid into pension schemes or do not qualify for full state pensions
                                          • Criticism: progress with regards to gender roles in family: men more involved in childcare and domestic labour
                                            • Hauri and Hollinworth found that fathers were becoming more understanding of their role as a parent and understood that spending quality time was important for bonding
                                              • sommerville argues that women can get divorced and have access to well paid jobs giving them control over their education and fertility
                                                • Wilkinson argues that a genderquake of the service sector means women now have equal opportunities to work in the same sphere as men
                                                  • According to Hakim's preference theory 20% of women choose their career over taking part time work to look after their families
                                                  • Radical feminism: society is unequal due to patriarchy and the family is the source of inequality
                                                    • Firestone argues that biological differences are the source of inequality for example women have the ability to give birth which may mean that greater restrictions are placed on their time so unable to maintain careers
                                                      • Millet- feminists define relations between males and females personal and politicalfor example social control in the form of socialisation
                                                        • Walby argues that there is a triple system of oppression: home, work and culture- women are free to be exploited in society - sex discrimination act and equal opp act not strong enough and patriarcy push women into low paid part time work
                                                          • Critisicm: patriarchy too deterministic and based on biological notions of gender e.g. males have more power as they have greater physical stregnth - fails to account for changes in gender and legislations protecting women
                                                            • marxist feminists: women exploited by ruling class and benefit capitalism - women are reserve army of labour who are easily employed and fired
                                                              • EOC: 44% of women work part time filling in employment gaps
                                                                • Zimmerman: traditional masculinities are values of employers -employers often did not employ women because they play a major role domestically which means that time would be taken out for childcare
                                                                  • Rowtham argues that in this way women are kept as army reserves to keep male wags low and provide reserve when in high demand during wars
                                                                    • Critisicm: black women in society not considered and marxism claims a false 'universality' because it was only about white MC women
                                                                      • Hooks argues that other feminists ignore the plight of black women and how they are afflicted by, class, ethnic and gender inequality
                                                                        • Weberain view: related to status differences, in the workplace employers associate women with a caring nature and not greedy for money
                                                                          • Barron and Norris's Dual Labour Market: primary and secondary structure -PRIMARY= jobs are secure and well paid-SECONDARY= jobs are temp and low paid- workers in secondary labour market more likely to be women because employers think they are less intrested in work than men and are easily replaced
  • Dual Labour market critisized by Burchell and Rubery: division between primary and secondary is too simplistic -vertical segregation in the workplace in workplace -horizontal segregation e.g. women being paid less in medical professions
    • Radical feminists: women jobs are often an extension of unpaid work in the home four C;s( cooking, caring, cleaning and check outs) - low paid and an extension of patriarchy
      • Liberal fems: argues that equal opps can be done by legislations and changing attitudes -gradual changes have taken place through Gender Equality Act , Gender Equality Legislation and Gender Equality Duty
        • Lib fems critisized: as they do not take into account structural constraints women face in workplace or class-assumes socialisation is passive and men and women accept what they're told- focuses on public sphere and ignore private
          • Oakley argues process of canalisation and manipulation socialises children in gender roles- dominant patriarchial ideology- women percieved as wives so are in secondary job market
            • Kelley and Colley- girls are steered towards choosing certain gendered subjects
              • Gannon - older women are materially deprived as a result of time out of employment and gender pay gap
                • CONCLUSION: various explanations of the existance of gender inequalities:-Rad fems focus on patriarchy and control of women via socialisation-marx fems focus on capitalism and WC women more disadvantaged -weberian focuses on status-lib fems argue gender inequality reducing


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