GCSE P.E Theory mind map

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  • GCSE P.E Theory
    • The skeleton
      • Key functions
        • Production of blood cells
          • Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow
        • Storage of minerals
          • Calcium and phosphorus are stored in the bones for strength
        • Protects
          • Protection of vital organs
        • Muscle attachment
          • When muscles contract they PULL the bones to cause movement
        • Formation of joints for movement
          • Movement occurs at the joints
      • Classification of bones
        • Long bones
          • Aid movement by working as leavers
            • E.g. Humerus,  Femur
        • Short bones
          • For weight bearing and provide support
            • E.g. Carpals, Tarsals
        • Flat bones
          • Provide protection and large surface for muscle attachment
            • E.g. Cranium, Ribs, Scapula
        • Irregular bones
          • Provide protection and  a place for muscle attachment
            • E.g. Vertebrae, Pelvic bones
      • Muscles
        • Antagonistic pairs
          • Muscles that work together to provide movement of the joints
          • One muscle contracts whilst the other relaxes
            • The muscle contracting is  the AGONIST
            • The muscle relaxing is the ANTAGONIST
        • Muscle fibres
          • Slow twitch 1
            • Low force
            • Slow contraction speed
            • High endurance
            • Not much power
          • Fast twitch 2a
            • High force
            • Moderate contraction speed
            • Medium endurance
            • Not as powerful as type 2x
          • Fast twitch 2x
            • Very high force
            • Fast contraction speed
            • Low endurance
            • Short, explosive actions
            • Only provides power for short periods of time
      • Leavers
        • The Leaver is a Bone
        • The Fulcrum is a Joint
        • The Effort is provided by muscles
        • The Load is the object being moved
        • Leaver systems
          • First class leaver system
            • The fulcrum is between the effort and the load
              • E.g. extending the arm at the elbow
          • Second class leaver system
            • The load is between the effort and the fulcrum
              • E.g. Calf raises
          • Third class leaver system
            • The effort is between the load and the fulcrum
              • E.g. bicep curl
              • The most common lever system in the human body
    • The cardiovascular system
      • Consists of:
        • Blood
          • Gases, blood cells and nutrients are all transported through the blood
        • Blood Vessels
          • The structures that carry the blood
            • Arteries
              • This muscular and elastic wall
              • Small diameter
              • Carry blood at high pressure away from the heart
              • Carrys oxygenated blood
            • Capilaries
              • Very thin walls
              • Small diameter
              • Links small arteries and small veins
              • Allows gaseous exchange
            • Veins
              • Thin walls
              • Contains valves
                • Prevent a back flow due to the low pressure
              • Large diameter
              • Carry blood at lot pressure towards the heart
              • Carries deoxygenated blood
        • The Heart
          • Circulates blood around the body
      • The cardiovascular system regulates body temp.
        • When body temp. RISES
          • Blood vessels increase in diameter
            • So heat can radiate from the skin
        • When body temp. DROPS
          • Blood vessels decrease in diameter
            • So less heat is lost by radiation
      • Vascular shunting
        • Redistribution of blood flow
        • Working  muscles need more oxygen
          • So blood is diverted away from inactive areas to the working muscles
    • Respiration
      • Lung volumes
        • Lung volume - How much air they can hold
        • Tidal volume -  amount of air inhaled or exhaled in a normal breath
        • Vital capacity-  the maximum amount of air the lungs can breathe out after the maximum amount they can breathe in
      • Gaseous exchange
        • Gases move from an area of HIGH concentration to an area of LOW concentration
        • The alveoli have a High concentration of oxygen, the capillaries surrounding the alveoli have a low concentration of oxygen
          • So oxygen diffuses through the thin walls of the alveoli into the capillaries
            • The capillaries gain oxygen and transport it around the body
        • The reverse happens with the movement of carbon dioxide

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