GCSE BIOLOGY - ORGANISATION - functions of the parts of the digestive system

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  • GCSE BIOLOGY ORGANISATION - functions of the parts of the digestive system
    • salivary glands
      • in your cheeks
      • produces saliva
        • lubricates food as it passes along the oesophagus
        • contains amylase that begins to break down carbs into sugars
    • oesophagus
      • short tube which connects the mouth to the stomach
    • stomach
      • about the size of a fist
        • ridges that allow it to increase in size when you eat
      • food is mixed with stomach acid to kill any pathogens
        • stomach acid DOES NOT break down food
      • protease enzymes are mixed with food to begin the breakdown of proteins
    • liver
      • food DOES NOT pass through the liver
      • produces bile which breaks down fats into smaller sections
        • this process is called emulsification
          • increases surface area  to allow lipase enzymes to work more effectively
    • gall bladder
      • food DOES NOT pass through it
      • bile is stored in the gal bladder before being released into the small intestine
    • pancreas
      • food DOES NOT pass through the pancreas
      • produces carbohydrase, protease and lipase enzymes and releases them into the small intestine
    • small intestine
      • digested food is absorbed into the blood stream in the small intestine
      • about 6 metres long
      • surface has millions of tiny figure like projections called villi
        • villi increase the surface area to allow more nutrients to be absorbed into the blood
      • food is pushed through the small intestine by a process called peristalsis
        • rhythmical contraction and relaxation of muscles in the lining of the small intestine
          • this movement forces lumps of food along it
    • large intestine
      • all that is left of food when it leaves the small intestine is water and fibre that you cannot digest
        • the large intestine absorbs water from this food
          • this leaves fibre which forms solid waste (faeces)
    • anus
      • opening which controls when you release faeces


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