Fundamentals of Computer Systems

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  • Fundamentals of Computer System
    • Hardware + Software
      • Hardware is the physical components of a computer system
      • Software is the computer programs and related data that provide the instructions to the hardware
    • Classification of Software
      • Application
        • Special Purpose
          • Used to execute a specific task e.g Chess board only lets you play chess
            • Web Browser
            • Calculator
            • Media Player
        • General Purpose
          • Can be used for a variety tasks
            • Presentation Software
            • Spreadsheet
            • Word Processors
        • Bespoke Purpose
          • Made for a specific purpose and user
            • Medical Equipment
            • UAV/Missiles
      • System
        • Designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software
        • Operating System
        • Utility programs
          • Used to help maintain a smooth running computer
            • Disk Defragmenter
            • Virus Scanner
            • System Monitor
        • Library Programs
          • Collection of sub-routes
        • Translator program
          • Assembler
          • Translator
          • Compiler
    • Programming Languages
      • The instructions that a computer will execute are those in machine or object code
      • First Generation
        • Binary
          • Easy and fast to code
          • Cannot be transported and has to be rewritten
      • Second Generation
        • Assembly code
          • Cannot be transported and has to be rewritten
          • Use mnemonics and so fast and easy to understand + code
      • Third Generation
        • Imperative
          • Code is executed line-by-line is a sequence defined by the programmer
        • Requires a compiler or an interpreter
        • Time saving
        • Code may not use processor specific functions
      • Fourth Generation
        • Declarative
          • Describes what to do, not how to do it
        • CSS


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