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  • Fundamental Religions
    • Religions which aim to take society back to traditional beliefs, following exact words of literature
    • Reject other religions and beliefs (opposite to cosmopolitan)
    • A response to Western religions and secularisation
    • Causes conflict with other religions and those who see fundamentalists as a threate
    • Often associated with extremism/terrorism
    • Response to change, seen as conservative force
    • Radical
    • Examples? New Christian Right, ISIS, Al Qaeda, BJP
    • Bruce
      • Modernism and rational thinking undermines religion
        • Main cause: secular society
      • Cultural defence: Reaction to western forces


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