Fundamental Ideas C1 Unit 1

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  • Fundamental Ideas C1 Unit1
    • Atomic Structure
      • The nucleus of an atom is made of protons and neutrons.
      • Protons have a positive charge, electrons a negative charge and neutrons are not charged.
      • The atomic number (or proton number) of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of its atoms.
      • Elements are arranged in order of their atomic numbers in the periodic table.
      • The mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
    • The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms
      • The atoms of the unreactive noble gases (in Group 0) all have very stable arrangements of electrons.
      • Electrons in atoms are in energy levels that can be represented by shells.
      • Electrons in the lowest energy level are in the shell closest to the nucleus.
      • Electrons occupy the lowest energy levels first.
      • All the elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their highest energy level (outer shell).
    • Forming Bonds
      • Compounds of metals bonded to non-metals have ionic bonds.
      • The formula of an ionic compound shows the simplest ratio of ions.
      • Compounds of non-metals have covalent bonds.
      • The formula of a molecule shows the number of atoms in the molecule.
    • Chemical Equations
      • Atoms get re-arranged in chemical reactions.
      • The mass of the products is equal to the mass of reactants.
      • Symbol equations should always be balanced.

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