Functionalist, postmodernist and marxist views of youth

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  • Functionalism and youth
    • Durkheim: Founding father of functionalism. society is governed by the shared norms and values
    • Parsons- Youth acts like a bridge between youth and adulthood to prevent anomie
    • Eisenstadt- argues that youth is an ascribed status and when achieving the adult status, it can be stressful so teens join youth subcultures for community and togetherness
  • Marxists and youth
    • CCCS: suggest youth working class subcultures developed as a result of rebellion to capitalism. the working class have been exploited and as a result they are now rebelling
    • Hall &Jefferson: RESISTANCE. Youth subcultures are resisting against the unfair economy and their working class position
    • Clarke: EXAGGERATION: skinheads exaggerated working class values due to the increase of middle class people which threatened them
    • Blake: MAGIC SOLUTIONS: joining subcultures provides solutions to working class problems. It allow them to express freedom and a sense of belonging
  • Postmodernism and youth
    • MIPC: CLUB CULTURE- people aren't just part of some subculture but several
    • Hetherington: Argues fashion and music since the 80's has been to bitty to associate with a subculture
    • Wilis- There is now a range of tastes and styles, people pick and mix rather than being associated with one subculture. they also no longer try to transmitte a message
    • Polhemus- Supermarket of style. People pick and mix different styles to create their own identity than belong to one subculture
  • MUGGLETON: The marxist view ignores middle class subcultures such as hippies and why they rebel against capitalism
  • Bennett: NEO TRIBES: people have many masks (Club culture) subcultures today are shifting


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