Functional Properties

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  • Functional Properties
    • Eggs
      • Aeration
        • When eggs are beaten they form a foam which traps air, which makes baked products lighter.
        • Meringues, whisked sponges, cakes
      • Emulsification
        • Egg yolk acts as an emulsifier which prevent mixtures from separating and curdling
        • Mayonnaise, cakes
    • Flour
      • Gelatinisation
        • When starch and water are heated, the water is absorbed by the starch granules, which swell and burst causing the liquid granules, which swell and burst causing the liquid to thicken.
        • Cheese sauce, custard, white sauce
      • Fermentation
        • Yeast produces carbon dioxide and alcohol which allows the flavour, texture and volume to develop. When dough is cooked the gluten is stretched by the bubbles of co2 gas and the bread rises.
        • Bread, Pizza bases
    • Sugar
      • Crystallisation
        • When sugar is dissolved in water and then boiled the water is driven off resulting in a thick syrup being formed. This sets into crystals when cooled.
        • Jam making, sweetie making, tablet and toffee
      • Flavour
        • Sugar adds a sweet flavour to baked products
        • Biscuits, pastry and cakes
    • Fat
      • Shorterning
        • When fat is rubbed into flour it coats the flour particles, but some remain uncoated. When water is added the uncoated particles absorb the water which is why fats make baked products crumbly.
        • Pastry, shortbread
      • Colour
        • Butter can give a golden brown colour to baked products.
        • Biscuits, pastry and cakes
    • Liquid (water, milk)
      • Nutritional Value
        • Using milk as a liquid in baked products will add protein and calcium to the dish.
        • Mashed potato, custard, cheese sauce
      • Flavour
        • Milk adds a rich flavour to baked goods
        • Muffins, sauces


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