Hydrocarbon 2 - Revision

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  • Fuels and Earth Science
    • The Atmosphere
      • Phase 2- Green plants evolved and produced oxygen
        • 1 A lot of the CO2 dissolved into the oceans
          • CO2 is a soluble gas. It dissolves  readily in water
      • Phase 1- Volcanoes gave out steam and CO2
        • 1 The Earth's surface was originally molten for millions of years
        • 2 Eventually the Earth's surface cooled and a thin crust formed but volcanoes kept eruopting, releasing gases from inside the Earth
          • Mainly released carbon dioxide, methane , steam and ammonia
      • Phase 3- Ozone layer allows evolution of complex animals
        • 1 The build up of oxygen in the atmosphere killed off early organisms that couldn't tolerate it
        • 3 The oxygen created the ozones layer which blocked harmful rays from the Sun and enabled even more complex organisms to evolve
        • 2 But it did allow the evoultion of more complex organisms that made use of the oxygen
        • 4 There is virtually no CO2 left
    • Climate Change
      • Increasing greenhouse gases causes climate change
        • 1 The concentration of methane has increased due to human activities
          • Methane is produced the digestive processes of certain livestock. More livestock we farm = more methane produced
        • 2  Extra greenhouse gases from human activity = increased temperatures (global warming)
        • 3 Global warming is a type of climate change and causes other types of climate change eg. rainfall patterns
          • Can cause severe flooding due to the polar ice caps melting
      • Historical data is much less accurate than current records
        • 1 Historical data is less accurate- less data was taken over fewer locations and the methods used to collect the data was less accurate
        • 2 But there are ways to estimate past data eg. by analyzing fossils, tree rings or gas bubbles trapped in ice sheets to estimate past levels of atmospheric CO2
      • Forming the modern atmosphere
        • Compared to the Earth's early  atmosphere, the modern atmosphere contains: less water vapour, less carbon dioxide, more oxygen
          • The most abundant gas in the modern atmosphere is nitrogen (78%) & 21% is oxygen
    • The Greenhouse Effect
      • Human activity affects the composition of air
        • 2 Average energy demand is increasing eg. more people now have cars.
          • This increased energy consumption comes from burning of fossil fuels which releases more CO2
        • 1 The human population is increasing so more people are respiring giving out more CO2
        • 4 CO2 is produced by volcanoes erupting
    • Test for O2- take a glowing splint and place it in a sample of gas, if it re-ignites the gas is oxygen


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