Fuels

  • Created by: saffa713
  • Created on: 05-03-18 11:11
View mindmap
  • Fuels
    • Alkane fuels are burned to release heat energy which can be used to power vehicles.
      • Complete combustion produces carbon dioxide, water and energy.
      • Incomplete combustion gives carbon monoxide , carbon dioxide, carbon and water.
        • Incomplete combustion happens when there is not enough oxygen.
      • Combustion reactions happen between gases so  liquid alkanes have to be vspourised first. Smaller alkanes are more volatile so they will burn more easily.
    • Burning fossil fuels produces harmful emissions.
      • Carbon monoxide is toxic to humans. It binds to haemoglobin in blood better than oxygen does so less oxygen is carried around the body, leading to oxygen deprivation. High levels of carbon monoxide can be fatal.
        • Incomplete combustion gives carbon monoxide , carbon dioxide, carbon and water.
          • Incomplete combustion happens when there is not enough oxygen.
      • Sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen lead to acid rain. Burning SO2 and NOx lead to sulphuric acid and nitric acid to dissolve into moisture and fall as acid rain. This destroys wildlife and corrodes buildings and statues.
        • Catalytic converters in car exhausts stop pollutants from being emitted by using a platinum catalyst to convert them into harmless gases.
          • Example: Oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide can be converted to nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
    • Fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas)  are non-renewable: there's a finite amount of them so it isn't sustainable to carry on using them the way we are now.
    • Biofuels are made from living matter over a short period of time.
      • Types of biofuels:
        • Bioethanol is ethanol made by the fermentation of sugar from crops.
        • Biodiesel is made by refining renewable fats and oils.
        • Biogas is produces by the breakdown of organic waste.
          • Can be made from waste that would otherwise go to landfill
            • Biodiesel is made by refining renewable fats and oils.
      • These fuels do produce CO2 when burnt but the plants that they're made from absorb CO2, so biofuels are classed as carbon neutral.
      • Problems with switching to biofuels:
        • Car engines will have to be modified for biofuel use - this is expensive.
        • The land used to grow crops for biofuels can't be used for food. .
          • Developed countries will create a large demand and developing countries may grow more crops for fuels than crops for food which will create food shortages

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Fuels resources »