Fruit and Veg - Food Technology

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  • Fruit and Vegetables
    • Climacteric Fruit
      • Show rapid rise in respiration rates after harvesting leading to rapid ripening
      • Fleshy
      • Banana's
      • Mango
      • Rapid ripening followed by spoilage
    • Non-climacteric
      • Gradual change in respiration
      • Long keeping qualities
      • Citrus group
      • Pineapple
    • Temperature
      • Reduction of temp
      • decreases rate of respiration
      • Due to slowing of enzymes
    • Controlled atmospheric storage
      • Lower oxygen level
      • Higher CO2 level
      • Correctly blended gases fed into a chamber
      • Slows rate of respiration
    • Hypobaric storage
      • Lowers oxygen level
      • Causes ethylene to diffuse
      • Delays ripeing
    • Ethylene
      • Stimulates ripening process
      • Produced in fruit at beginning of climacteric peak
      • Comes from amino acids
      • Can be applied externally
    • Drying
      • AFD
      • Tunnel Drying
      • Sun drying
      • Diced
    • Juicing
      • High Viscosity e.g. Tomatoes
      • Low viscosity e.g. Apples
      • Macerated to form pulp
      • Rack + Cloth press to release juice
      • Pasteurised
      • Canned
      • Macerated to form pulp + heated to 85c
      • Inactivate pectolytic enzymes
    • Pickling
      • Wooden vat filled 1/3 with 10% brine
      • Veg added
      • Dry salt added
      • Lactic Acid produced
      • Cucumber, Onions
    • Preserves
      • Jam
      • Sugar added to equal weight of fruit
      • Candied fruit strong sugar solution added to slices to dehydrate them
    • Changes in Ripening
      • Starch broken down
      • Pectin broken down
      • Cell wall polysaccharides degraded
      • Acid levels reduced
    • Factors influence ripening
      • High temps lead to rapid ripening
      • Oxygen must be sufficient  or fruit ferments
      • Ethylene stimulates ripening
    • Critical Temp
      • High = starch synthesised from sugar
      • Low = sugar accumulates
        • Starch broken down
        • respiration increases
        • Ripening increases

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