Haloalkanes

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 11-03-14 23:16
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  • Haloalkanes
    • Free radical substitution
      • Initiation
        • UV light essential condition
        • Breaking bonds in haloalkane
      • Propagation
        • first removing a hydrogen
        • Then adding haloalkane
      • Termination
        • Adding two free radicals
      • Ozone
        • Initiation
          • CF3Cl =(UV) .CF3+.Cl
        • Propagation
          • ClO.+O3=2O2+Cl.
          • Cl.+O3=ClO.+O2
        • Overall
          • 2O3= 3O2
        • Cl catalyses the breakdown of  ozone to O2
      • Prevent further substitution use an excess of alkane
      • More substitution use an excess of Chlorine
    • Nucleophilic substitution
      • Hydroxide ion
        • in aqueous conditions
          • OH- acts as a nucleophile
            • Alcohol is produced
      • Cyanide
        • conditions are warm aqueous alcoholic
          • Extends carbon chain by one
            • Nitrile is produced
      • Ammonia
        • Ammonia doesn't have a charge
          • The product primary amine is a nucleophile itself
            • To prevent further reaction use as large amount of haloalkane
    • Elimination reactions
      • Hydroxide ion in ethanolic conditions
        • OH- ions act as a base
          • Product is an alkene
  • Propagation
    • ClO.+O3=2O2+Cl.
    • Cl.+O3=ClO.+O2

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