Free will vs determinism

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  • Free will vs determinism
    • Free will is the idea that we all have a choice and can control and choose our own behaviour
    • Determinism is the idea that our behaviour is governed by internal or external forces over which we have no control
      • External force- influence of parents when rewarding certain behaviours
        • Environmental determinism- the belief that behaviour is caused by environmental factors
      • Internal force - hormones
        • Biological determinism- the belief that behaviour is caused by biological influences
        • Psychic determinism- the belief that behaviour is caused by unconscious conflicts
      • Hard determinism- believes that every event and action has a cause. Free will is impossible
        • Skinner argued that behaviour is caused by the environment more specifically reinforcement and that it's only because we are unaware of the environmental causes that we are tricked into believing in our ability to choose
      • Soft determinism- represents a middle ground, people do have a choice, but that choice is constrained by external factors
      • Suggests criminals can't be held accountable for their actions
        • Skinner argued that behaviour is caused by the environment more specifically reinforcement and that it's only because we are unaware of the environmental causes that we are tricked into believing in our ability to choose
      • Scientific
  • For humanistic psychologists such as Maslow, freedom isn't only possible but also necessary if we are to become fully functional human beings. He see's self actualisation as a unique human need and form of motivation

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