France in 1661

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  • Condition of France in 1661
    • Internal opposition
      • Certain revolts were brutally crushed
      • Huguenots had been loyal during the fronde
      • Conde had been won back and tamed
      • Jesuit/ Jansenist controversy gathered strength. it wasn't about the monarchy but had political overtones as unsolved problems.
      • Revolts continued...
    • Security in France and place in Europe
      • France now dominated Europe
      • France was at peace. Also eastern borders were strengthened (Metz, Toul)
      • France established protector of German princes and of Sweden
      • Habsburg defeat- their power had been reduced
      • International and French markets were cornered by new maritime powers
    • Royal power
      • Loyalty to Bourbon dynasty had been visibly demonstrated
      • Crowns alliance with its office holders had been restored
      • Royal patronage functioning smoothly again
      • Nobles defeated (Aristocratic fronde)
      • Restoration of intendants strengthened royal power. Also no published public opinion challenged monarchy
      • Parlement of  Paris were put in their place
      • Power of provincial governors weakened
    • Finance and economy
      • Undeveloped industry and trade- aristocracy continued to have contempt for such activities.
      • Tax restored, France could still afford expensive war
      • Huge debt of 451 million livres
      • Plague & famine 1659-62
      • No. of venal office holders (60,000) was a drain on crowns resources
      • Weak agriculture
      • Communications still poor and international and French markets were still poor.


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