CARBON - Unconventional fossil fuels and alternatives to classic FF's

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  • Fossil fuels: un-conventional FF's and alternatives to FF's.
    • Alternatives to fossil fuels
      • Renewable energy sources: HYDRO, WIND (rampion offshore Worthing), SOLAR (via photovoltaic cells), GEO-THERMAL AND TIDAL.
      • Many countries may not be able to switch 100% to renewables because places may not have local energies to exploit.
      • Fossil fuels may be cheaper than renewables
      • can create environmental costs.
      • NIMBY
      • NUCLEAR - Accidents, disposing has a long decay life, only optional for developed countries with advanced technology, the costs of constructing and decommissioning stations are high. CHERNOBYL.
    • Unconventional fossil fuels CANADA is the leading country to establish these.
      • These are all fossil fuels so they will threaten the environment
      • extraction is costly and uses technology and water
      • disrupts communities and degrades residential environments
      • TAR SANDS - mixture of bitumen, water, clay and sand. these must be mined then injected with steam to make tar less viscous.
      • SHALE OIL - oil-bearing rocks which are permeable enough to directly allow pumping out. Extracted by mining OR igniting so fractions are pumped out
      • SHALE GAS - natural gas trapped in sedimentary rocks. Fracking used to extract
      • DEEPWATER OIL - oil and gas found deep underwater at considerable metres offshore. Drilling takes place from ocean rigs, GULF OF MEXICO and BRAZIL.
    • BIOFUELS
      • Derived directly from organic matter, such as crops, forestry or fishery (or commercial waste) BIOMASS.
      • Wheat, corn, sugar cane, grass, soy beans (UK- **** Seed and Sugar Beet)..
      • Are converted into biodiesel or ethanol for use of vehicle fuel.
      • Uncertain of how carbon-neutral biofuels are, and they take up a lot of space where crops for starving world could be grown.
      • BRAZIL - 90% of cars sold in brazil have flex-fuel engines which can take petrol and ethanol, thus reducing carbon emissions.
        • displacement of other types of agriculture (cattle rearing). also, clearance of the tropical rainforest in the Amazon Basin nullifies the reduction of C emissions.
    • Un-conventional ff's means: obtained through techniques other than traditional extraction

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