PSYA3 Formation Mindmap

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  • Formation of Relationships
    • Reward/Need Satisfaction Model (Byrne + Clore)
      • A01
        • We have several needs that satisfy our relationship such as eating together, being comforted, seeking company, social order, sex and being valued by others.
        • We are rewarded Indirectly (Classical conditioning)
          • Rewards include being near someone when we are happy so we form a positive association.
        • We are rewarded directly (Operant conditioning)
          • Rewards include smiling, laughing and generally anything positive.
      • A02
        • Veitch + Griffiths
          • conducted a study in a waiting room in which they heard good or bad news and then asked to rate a stranger. The degree of liking the stranger was related to the type of news they heard.
        • Hays
          • Rewards may not be important as he found attraction was based on giving as well as receiving.
        • Lott
          • There may be a cultural bias in formation of relationships. Women in different cultures are more focused on other peoples needs than their own.
            • Theory is based on western ideas thus, culturally biased.
        • The theory doesn't account for unrewarding relationships such as abusive ones as it doesn't explain why people stay in them.
        • Theory has been criticised for using lab studies as they aren't real.
    • Filter Model of Attraction (Kerckoff + Davis
      • A01
        • We use different filters to form relationships.
          • Proximity - best predictor in the formation of relationships.
          • Exposure - proximity increases chances of interactions.
          • Similarities - people who think like us make us more confident
          • Physical closeness - Halo effect
          • Complementarity of needs
      • A02
        • Festinger (Proximity)
          • manipulated student rooms, they became friends with people who roomed near them.
        • Dion (Physical closeness)
          • Due to the halo effect, we see people who are attractive to have more attractive personalities.
        • Walster (Physical attractivenes)
          • Did a computer dance study and found the best predictor of a second date was physical attractiveness
            • However, his study was criticised for being unrealistic.
              • He did a further study where they were allowed to meet first which made a critical difference.
        • Murstein - Matching hypothesis (similarity)
          • Ps rated photos of couples (some fake) the real couples were rated as highest which supports similarity.


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