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  • Formation of relationships
    • Behavioural
      • Reward and Need for Satisfaction Model- Byrne and Clore. Form a relationship with someone who is rewarding and provides satisfaction. Directly through operant Conditioning (Skinner), rewarding in themselves- humour. Or indirectly through classical Conditioning (Pavlov), associate pleasurable events- cinema. Will not form if found punishing.
        • Griffiff and Guay provided support as they found participants rated experimenter more positively is he praised them during task. RN plays a role in liking- direct positive reinforcement.
          • Parsimonious as it is justifiably simplistic as supported by Griffiff and Guay's research. Should accept behavioural factors.
          • Low internal validity- measured liking and attraction rather than actual formation, relevant but not the same.
        • Argyle provided support as he found those with most reinforcing characteristics were most liked (smiling). RN plays a role in attraction- direct positive reinforcement.
          • Low internal validity- measured liking and attraction rather than actual formation, relevant but not the same.
        • Unscientific as it is impossible to test predictions as relationships cannot be formed in experimental conditions.
    • Cognitive
      • Social Exchange Theory- Thibaut and Kelly. Form a relationship if we anticipate that future benefits outweigh costs on two levels; comparison level for the relationship itself, and comparison level for alternatives where we compare to alternative relationships. Form relationship if there is a positive pay off matrix.
        • Rusbult provides evidence against SET as costs and benefits are ignored in honeymoon phase due to excitement. Used later on.
        • Simplistic as Duck argues it ignored family pressure in forming a relationship and Argyle found that non-verbal factors are important as well.
        • Unfalsifiable as you cannot test private cognitive thoughts about costs and benefits. Argyle criticised the artificial methods used to measure costs and benefits.
    • Behavioural factors used in formation and cognitive factors used in later stages as we are unlikely to be rational about costs and benefits.


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