Forgetting methods Psychology

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  • Created by: Kimberley
  • Created on: 31-03-13 18:48
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  • FORGETTING
    • lack of consolidation
      • Blow to the head or chemical disruption/consolidation cant happen
      • it is a structural change = cause by neural acitivty
      • consolidation is required for into to LTM
      • study
        • American footballers. They were concussed and asked at different time periods
    • Motivated forgetting
      • traumatic experiences are repressed into unconscious
      • we forget because we want to
      • Study
        • Williams
          • 129 woman
          • abused 10mths - 12years
          • interviewed 18-31yrs
          • 38% not recall
      • evaluation
        • unfalseyeable - cant be tested if right or wrong
        • cant explain how some people still recall unpleasant events clearly
        • normally recall more pleasant than unpleasant memories but we may rehearse pleasent
        • might not be due to repression don't want to talk.
    • Displacement
      • 7+-2 capacity
      • if full, push out
      • only applies to STM
      • Study
        • serial position
          • 21 words
          • recall
      • Evaluation
        • fits with multistore model
        • tasks emvolved are artificial - learning list of words
        • Lost popularity when the working model was introduced
        • only STM not comprehensive, theory of forgetting
    • Trace Decay
      • with time / no rehearsal engram breaks down
      • when we learn a structure change occurs (engram)
      • Study
        • presented with pts with trigram
        • rehearsal was prevented with a distractor
        • fond a decline in recall after 30seconds - no trigram recalled
      • evaluation
        • we don't know if the forgetting was due to time / distraction
        • cant explain how people can remember events from years ago but was never rehersed
        • cant explain why people who may not have recalled straight away but not after
    • interference
      • similar information causes memory to be confused
        • 2 types
          • retroactive
            • current learning affects old
      • Evaluation
        • tasks are artificial learning list of words = lacks ecological validity but rugby players = field study
        • interference depends on the similarity material, it does not occur occur often with material not similar
        • no real explanation of why it occurs and the cog processes involved
        • does have a role in forgetting but we are unsure of the extent
    • retrieval failure
      • information in LTM is available it cant be accessed unless appropriate cues
        • context
        • state
        • organisation
      • study
        • learn words in water/dry land
        • recall same environment or not
        • recall better in the same enviroment learnt from
      • evaluation
        • it fit with what we know about levels of processing because cues involve deep processing
        • sometimes just imagining the context where it was learned is just as good.
        • everyone has experiences the tip of the tounge phenomena
        • diver study lacks eco validity because the task is too artificial
  • lack of consolidation
    • Blow to the head or chemical disruption/consolidation cant happen
    • it is a structural change = cause by neural acitivty
    • consolidation is required for into to LTM
    • study
      • American footballers. They were concussed and asked at different time periods
  • Rehersal helps
    • Evaluation
      • not sure how long it takes
      • most everyday instances do not involve blow to head
      • field study = high eco validity
      • link bio & psy
      • consistent with what we know about nervous system
    • proactive
      • 2 types
        • retroactive
          • current learning affects old
      • earlier learning affects currents learning
    • study
      • similar information causes memory to be confused
        • played games throughout season
        • asked who they played
        • those who played a lot forgo more than those who played fewer

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