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  • Created on: 13-01-14 19:10
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  • FOREIGN POLICY to 1873.
    • -maintain the balance of power in Europe, through which peace would be maintained.
      • However, by 1865, the balance of power was shifting. The German speaking states of central Europe had united in 1871 to form a new German Empire, which was the strongest military power on the continent.
        • Britain was concerned about the expansion of Russia towards the northwest frontier of India, the 'jewel in the crown' of Britain's empire. These concerns led to the Crimean war of 1853-56.
          • GLADSTONE expressed a desire to do what was morally right, his policy has been criticised by contempories and historians. Many at the time felt his policies made Britain look weak.
    • 1. FRANCO PRUSSIAN WAR 1870-1
      • Before 1871, there was 'no Germany'. As a consequence of the franco prussian war, a united germany was created.
      • When Prussia fought France, Gladstone opted for neutrality, although he did intervene to ensure that both sides respected Belgian neutrality. Palmerston had committed to protect Belgian neutrality in the Treaty of Lodon in 1839.
      • Some contempory voices e.g. the times raised concerns that Britain was standing by and allowing the new German ascendancy. -disturbs balance of power.
      • Crimean war - ended by the treaty of Paris between Russia and Britain. This treaty forbode russia from stationing her navy in the Black sea.
      • The chancellor of Germnay encouraged the tsar to withdraw from the clauses. Gladstone called a conference, was not prepared to use military force so cancelled the clauses allowing russia to build a naval prescence in the black sea.
      • G respecting rights of R, however undermined Britains position allowing russia potential access to India. Humiliating?
      • a warship used in the civil war. Britain had promised neutrality in the civil war, and so after the victory of the North the american gov. sued the British for damage done to their shipping.
      • This disrupted anglo-us relations and G withrew troops from canado in 1871 and was highly critiucised for this - disraeli. The Americans demanded $9 million in compensation. The dispute went to an arbitration and Britain were ordered to pay 43.25 million in damages. - 5% of the govs. annual budget.
      • Danger of war was removed and relations with the USA started to improve. G said the money was 'like dust compared to the moral example set.' contempory op. very critical - B did nothing wrong so paying was humiliating.
    • -retrenchment -undercurrent of moral and fair approach - often seen as weak and giving in, sometimes humiliating.
    • Muriel chamberlain argued that Gs preference for negotioation was the only practical response at the time, given Bs limited military forces.


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