Foreign Powers

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  • Foreign Powers
    • Europe was dominated by Catholic powers determined to limit the spread of Protestantism.
      • The greatest of these was the Habsburg family, who controlled Spanish and Austian empires, as well as the Holy Roman Empire.
    • France
      • Religious war broke out in 1562:
        • Elizabeth was concerned about its potential to threaten her realm by encouraging religious conflict in England.
        • Elizabeth agreed in 1562 to help French Protestants hoping to get back Calais in return.
          • her policy failed: the French Protestants and Catholics made peace later that same year.
          • 1564: Elizabeth signed the Treaty of Troyes, confirming once and for all that Calais belonged to the France.
        • All Elizabeth had achieved was to irritate Phillipp II of Spain by supporting the Protestant rebels.
    • Spain and the Spanish Netherlands
      • Both ruled as strict catholic empires under the reign of Phillip II that didn't look too favorable to Elizabeth's support of Protestant rebels in Scotland and France.
        • 1563: banned the import of English cloth as he believed that the merchants were spreading Protestantism
          • Elizabeth did the same: resulting in a trade embargo that damaged both countries.
      • Elizabeth was concerned that the two powers - Spain and France would become allies against her.
    • The Dutch revolt
      • Causes
        • Spain/Phillip's interference with the Netherlands Government and Church
          • The Spanish Inquisition: a political and religious body set up by Spain in 1478 to keep Spanish territories true to the Catholic faith.
      • First broke out in 1566: Phillip sent the Duke of Alba in 1567 with an army of 10,000 men to put down the revolt.
        • It had been defeated by 1568.
        • Alba established a Council of Troubles in the Netherlands to enforce Catholicism and obedience to the Spanish Crown
          • ignored local law and legal processes, condemning 1000's to death (most protesting protestants) leading to many Dutch Protestants fleeing to England.
          • Elizabeth was concerned about Alba's presence in the Netherlands:
            • Alba''s large army was within easy striking distance of England.
            • Elizabeth did not wan to become seen as Europe's leading Protestant monarch
              • she wished to avoid ware and openly condemned Dutch rebels.
                • England didn't have the resources and it would encourage civil war as well.
      • Sea Beggars
        • Dutch rebels fled to the sea: attacked Spanish ships in the Channle
          • 1567: Eliza. began allowing them to shelter in English ports
      • Genoese loan
        • 1568: Spanish ships carrying gold (load to Philip from Italian bankers) took refuge from  sea beggars
          • angered Phillip greately

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