Foreign Policy of Ferdinand and Isabella, Charles V and Philip II - Spain in the Age of Discovery

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  • Foreign Policy of the 3 Monarchs
    • Ferdinand and Isabella
      • Strengths
        • Treaty of Barcelona - gave up Cerdagne and Rousillon to Spain. Took Naples from French 1495, recognised as part of Aragon.
          • Granada - Catholic Iberian Peninsula
            • 1503 Battle of Cerignola - French recognised Aragon's control of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia - sent viceroys
            • Portugal gives up claims to Canary Islands. Border secured due to marriage between F and I's daughter Isabella and King of Portugal
              • 1515 Navarre incorporated into Aragon
                • 1490s take Oran, Bougie, Tripoli
                • Holy League under pretence of protecting the Pope
      • Weaknesses
        • Prince Alfonso invades Castile but crushed easily
        • Very expensive
    • Charles V
      • Strengths
        • Holds on to Flanders, Artois, Navarre and Naples
          • 1529 - Treaty of Cambria - France give up Naples, Flanders and Milan
            • Battle of Pavia 1525 - capture Francis
              • Maintained Spanish Road
                • Encirclement of France maintained and strengthened by T-H marriage 1554
              • Suleiman fails to besiege Vienna in '29 and '32 - Otts had met limit of possible expansion]
                • Charles takes Tunis in 1535 - sails with banner of crucified Christ and takes cruzada for a crusade
      • Weaknesses
        • Failure to take Metz from the French
          • New World buillion mostly used to pay off debt
            • 1529 Otts take Hungary - exposes Austria to threat. 'spring board for offensives against Austria
              • 1551 Tripoli 1555 Bougie lost and failed taking Algiers
                • Corsair fleet attacked Balearic islands, Italy and Spain
                  • 8 Spanish Galleys destroyed in 1529
    • Philip II
      • Successes
        • 1563 decisive action against Ottomans - battled Turkish fleets off of Oran
          • 1581 Philip recognised by Portuguese cortes as King after he changes himself to conform to Portuguese ideals
            • 1559 Treaty of Cateau - Cambresis. Ends H-V wars  - recognises Spanish -Italian hegemony
      • Failures
        • Liz I takes Spanish ships and gives troops to Dutch for revolt (Treaty of Nonesuch)
          • Armada, loses 2/3 of ships in an attempt to restore Catholicism to England and end Dutch alliance
            • French Prots attack Spanish Rousillon
              • 1596 Philip bankrupt
                • Barbary Pirates disrupt Spanish shipping - defensive

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