Henry VII - Foreign policy

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  • Foreign Policy
    • Brittany and France
      • In 1487, Duke Francis II of Burgundy died so France invaded.
        • Henry wanted to help Burgundy as they had given him sanctuary and he didn't want France becoming more of a threat.
      • Therefore in 1489 the Treaty of Redon was signed where Anne gave Henry money and Henry gave Anne an army.
        • This treaty also led to an alliance with Maximillion as he arranged a marriage-by-proxy with Anne.
          • However, Anne married Charles VIII so the agreement was lost.
      • In 1492, late campaigning season, 26,000 men were sent to France.
        • Henry knew Charles wanted to invade Italy, so he would want to get rid of Henry quickly.
          • Therefore in 1492 the Treaty of Etaples was signed.
            • This got Henry 50,000 crowns a year and made up 5% of his annual income.
    • Burgundy, Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire
      • Most English trade went through the Netherlands which was under the jurisdiction of Burgundy.
        • This meant Margaret Burgundy's grand step-son Philip was incharge and they were harbouring Warbeck.
          • Therefore, Henry took a risk and stopped cloth trade.
            • This led to the Intercursus Magnus in 1496 which restored normal trade.
            • It made him unpopular with London and East Coast Merchants.
      • In 1504 Philip stayed with Henry after being shipwrecked which improved relations with Burgundy further
        • This led to the 1506 Intercursus Malus which developed stronger trade between England and the Netherlands.
          • However, never became fully operative.
        • It also led to the Treaty of Windsor which recognised Philips claim to Castile.
        • Philip also arranged a marriage between with his sister Margaret.
          • However, he died in 1506 so it never happened.
      • In 1508 the League of Cambrai was set up with the Roman Empire, Spain and France
        • Henry was not a signatory in this league so was diplomatically isolated.
    • Spain
      • Spain was a dominant power in the Western Mediterranean after the union of Castile and Aragon in 1479.
      • The treaty of  Medina Del Campo was signed in 1489.
        • This got lower tariffs, a marriage for Arthur and closed Spain to Yorkist pretenders.
      • However, the good relations between the countries didn't last.
        • In 1504 Ferdinand and Henry were looking for wives, causing rivalry.
        • Ferdinand married Louis XII of Frances niece in 1505.
    • Scotland and Ireland
      • After the 1497 Cornish Rebellion, Scotland and England signed the Treaty of Ayton.
        • Was formalised in 1502 and led to better relations.
      • Treaty of Perpetual Peace led to James marrying Henrys daughter Margaret
      • In 1477, the Earl of Kildare is appointed Lord Deputy in Ireland.
        • Henry replaces him in 1495 with Poynings.
        • Poynings costs too much so Henry gives the position back to Kildare in 1496.
        • Kildare was no longer Yorkist so did his job well, keeping peace for not much money.


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