Food Technology As

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  • Created by: Eliza
  • Created on: 24-01-13 13:03
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  • Food Tech As
    • Proteins.
      • Definition - Molecules which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but are also combined with phosphorus and/or sulphur.
      • HBV - High Biological Value. Meat, fish, eggs, dairy (Specifically milk) and soya.
      • LBV - Low Biological Value. Nuts, beans, lentils.
        • Do not contain all 8 amino acids.
        • Can be complemantary to eachother. LBV+LBV = HBV meal
      • After proteins are consumed, they are broken down into amino acids then absorbed to make body proteins.
        • Non-Essential Amino Acids are made by a process of transamination.
    • Carbohydrates.
      • Formed in 3 main groups. Monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
      • Monosaccharides are simple sugars, soluble in water, vary in sweetness.
        • Glucose - The form of carbohydrate that is used for energy and this is because all carbs are converted to glucose during digestion. Commonly found in ripe fruit, onions and beetroot.
        • Galactose - Found in the milk of mammals where it forms part of lactose milk sugar.
        • Fructose - Known as fruit sugar, mainly found in plant juices, honey and fruit.
      • Disaccharides are known as double sugars as they are made of two monosaccharides together.
        • Sucrose - Commonly used in cooking and is obtained by refining sugarbeet and sugarcane. Made of 1 glucose and 1 fructose unit.
        • Maltose - Made of 2 glucose units.
        • Lactose - Commonly found in milk and dairy products. Made of 1 glucose and 1 galactose unit.
      • Polysaccharides are made of a number of varying sugars. Prefix 'poly' means many.
        • Pectin - Complex poly in some plants; strawberries, apple, plum. It forms a gel in water and is used to set jams.
        • Cellulose - Formed by plants from glucose units. Plants use it for support in stems, leaves and seed husks but cannot be digested by humans. It is a good source of NSP.
        • Glycogen -  Found after digestion in humans and animals. Provides a reserve energy in the body.
        • Starch - Made of many glucose units. Found in root vegetables, cereals and pulses.
        • Dextrin - Formed when foods containing starch are baked or toasted. It forms part of the crust.
    • Nutritional and Health disorders.
      • Deficiency of Vitamin C is called Scurvy.
        • Connective tissue not maintained. Walls of blood vessels weaken. Haemorrhages under the skin. General weakness, irritability, muscle pains, loss of weight, fatigue. Gums bleed, tooth loss.
      • Deficiency of Vitamin B is called Pellagra.
        • Dermatitis which happens on the skin that is exposed to the sun.
        • Dementia which is memory loss, depression, confusion.
        • Diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort, loss of appetite, weight lose and frequent stools.
      • Protein deficiency is called Kwashiokor and Marasmus.
        • Retarded growth, chronic diarrhoea and infection, deterioration of hair, skin and nails, retaining of fluid under skin causing fluid (Oedema).
      • Obesity is caused by eating too much fat or lack of exercise.
        • Obese people are more prone to heart disease, chest infection, varicose veins, hernias, hypertension, diabetes, gall stones, osteoarthritis of the back, knees, hips and skin infection.
      • Cardio-vascular disease is anything that affects the heart/blood such as CHD, angina, strokes and peripheral arterial disease.
        • Narrowing of the common arteries, smoking, hypertension, obesity, high blood cholesterol and diabetes.
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      • Dental caries is the medical term for tooth decay.
        • Bacteria  produce dextran which sticks to teeth. Plaque is bacterial cells, dextran, debris and salivary protein.
        • Plaque that is not removed changes into tartar and irritates gums causing gingivitis.

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