Food poisening

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  • Food poisening
    • Microbiological hazards
      • Bacteria viruses Moulds (fungi) parasites
      • The multiplication of bacteria within food
      • The survival of bacteria or other pathogens because of inadequate cooking or processing
      • Micro-biological hazards occur when food becomes contaminated by micro organisms
    • Bacteria requirements
      • The best temperature for most food poisoning bacteria is 37C the danger zone is between 5-63C
      • bacteria like raw and cooked meats as well as dairy foods as they have high protein and moisture content
        • For example gravy must be stored and kept in the fridge as well as raw chicken as the bottom of the fridge
      • Time: In the right conditions bacteria can divide into 2 ever ten minutes. The multiplying process of bacteria is called binary fission
        • Food must be covered and stored carefully to avoid bacteria in the air contaminating the food
      • Acidity: micro-organisms grow best at a pH around 7.0 while only a few grow below 4.0
  • Most bacteria are harmless and are used in industry for cheese making and yoghurt
    • Food saftey
      • spoilage bacteria cause food to spoil so they are unfit to eat (smell or be slimy)
      • Food poisoning bacteria are known as pathogens (can not be seen) if they get into food they make people ill
      • Food poisoning bacteria multiply and produce toxins
  • Bacteria requirements
    • The best temperature for most food poisoning bacteria is 37C the danger zone is between 5-63C
    • bacteria like raw and cooked meats as well as dairy foods as they have high protein and moisture content
      • For example gravy must be stored and kept in the fridge as well as raw chicken as the bottom of the fridge
    • Time: In the right conditions bacteria can divide into 2 ever ten minutes. The multiplying process of bacteria is called binary fission
      • Food must be covered and stored carefully to avoid bacteria in the air contaminating the food
    • Acidity: micro-organisms grow best at a pH around 7.0 while only a few grow below 4.0
  • Low risk foods
    • Bacteria are not able to multiply in dry food or food containing high concentrations of sugar and vinegar or salt
      • For example: cereals, dried pasta, bread , biscuits, canned foods
  • High risk foods
    • Bacteria thrive in foods that have a high moisture content and high levels of protein
      • For example: cooked meat and fish, gravies and stocks, shellfish, dairy products and cooked rice
  • Symptoms usually last 4-7 days most people get better without treatment
    • can cause more serious illnesses in older adults, infants and people with chronic diseases
      • Food sources:  cooked meat, pies, sausages, eggs and faeces
        • Salmonella
          • What do you do? drink plenty of water and get rest, antibiotics maybe be necessary if the infection spreads from the intestine to the blood stream. If you can not drink enough fluids to stop dehydration and symptoms are severe call a doctor
            • Preventing it: avoid high risk foods, including raw or lightly cooked eggs, under cooked beef or poultry and unpasteurized milk. keep food refrigerated before cooking, clean hands with soap and warm water before handling
              • preventing: chill foods promptly after serving and when transporting from one place to another, wash your hands after contact with animals
            • preventing: chill foods promptly after serving and when transporting from one place to another, wash your hands after contact with animals
            • Separate cooked foods from ready to eat foods, do not use utensils on cooked foods that were used with raw foods previously
    • Headache, fever, abdominal pain, vomiting
      • Duration 12- 72 hours incubation
  • Listeria mono-cytogenes
    • Listeria is the name of a type of bacteria found in soil and water and some animals including poultry and cattle
    • It can be present in raw milk and foods made from raw milk, it can also live in food processing plants and contaminate a variety of processed meats
    • Listeria can grow even in cold temperatures such as the refrigerators. listeria is killed by cooking and pasteurization
    • Food sources: water, manure, milk, pate, cook- chill foods
    • symptoms: fever, stiff neck, confusion, weakness, vomiting, sometimes diarrhoea
    • Duration: days to weeks, 3-70 days incubation
    • What do I do: very ill with fever and stick neck consult your doctor, antibiotics given promptly can cure the infection and in pregnant women can prevent infection of the foetus
    • Prevention: do not drink raw unpasteurized milk or foods that contain this, wash equipment after preparing uncooked foods, keep uncooked meats and poultry away from fresh produce e.g fruits and veg.
      • consume perishable and ready to eat foods as soon as possible, for high risk groups hot gods, deli meats and cold cuts should be reheated.
  • Camplyobacter
    • most cases are isolated events not as part of recognised outbreaks
    • Food sources: poultry, raw meat, unpasteurized milk
    • Symptoms: diarrhoea, abdominal pain, nausea, exhaustion
    • Duration of illness: 2-10 days, 2-5 days incubation
    • what do I do: drink plenty of fluids and get some rest, if you can not drink enough fluids to prevent dehydration and symptoms are severe call a doctor
      • In  more severe cases antibiotics can be used and shorten the duration of symptoms if given early in the illness
    • Prevention: always cook meat especially poultry to a safe minimum temperature of 72C inside the piece of chicken,  do not drink raw unpasteurized milk
  • Staphy-lococuss aureas
    • Bacteria commonly found on the skin and hair and in the noses an throats of people and animals
      • present in up to 25% of healthy people but even more in people with skin, eye , nose and throat infections
        • multiply quickly at room temperature to produce toxins which cause the illness
    • Food sources: nose , skin , cooked meat , pies and custard
    • Symptoms: severe vomiting, diarrhoea and exhaustion
    • Duration:24-48 hours, 1-6 hours incubation
    • What do I do: drink plenty of fluids and get rest, if you can drink enough fluids to prevent dehydration call your doctor
    • Prevention: wash hands and under fingernails with soap and water before handling food, do not  prepared food if you have a nose or eye infection
      • do not prepared food for others if you have wounds or skin infections on your hands, keep areas of the kitchen clean and sanitized
      • Untitled
  • Escherichia (E coli)
    • Food sources: raw meat , soft cheeses and water
    • Symptoms: vomiting, diarrhoea, headache and fever
    • Duration - 5-10 days , most people will be better in 6-8 days
      • 1- 10 days incubation
      • type of bacteria that lives in your intestines and in the intestines of animals, sometimes can cause kidney failure
      • Untitled
    • Prevention: avoid eating high risk foods, especially undercooked ground beef, unpasteurized milk or juice or soft cheeses made from unpasteurized milk
    • Use a thermometer to make sure ground beef has reached a safe internal temperature  160F, wash hands before preparing food, after contact with cows, sheep or goats, their food or living environemnt
  • what do I do? drink plenty of fluids and get lots of rest, if you cant drink enough fluids to prevent dehydration or if your symptoms are serve call your docotor
    • Blood in your stools and abdominal pain
    • Escherichia (E coli)
      • Food sources: raw meat , soft cheeses and water
      • Symptoms: vomiting, diarrhoea, headache and fever
      • Duration - 5-10 days , most people will be better in 6-8 days
        • 1- 10 days incubation
        • type of bacteria that lives in your intestines and in the intestines of animals, sometimes can cause kidney failure
        • Untitled
      • Prevention: avoid eating high risk foods, especially undercooked ground beef, unpasteurized milk or juice or soft cheeses made from unpasteurized milk
      • Use a thermometer to make sure ground beef has reached a safe internal temperature  160F, wash hands before preparing food, after contact with cows, sheep or goats, their food or living environemnt
    • Antibiotics should be used to treat this infection
  • Bacillus cereus
    • food sources: rice , sauces and soups
    • Symptoms: diarrhoea and vomitting
    • Duration: 24 hours, incubation 6-15 hours diarrhoea, vomiting 30 minuets to 6 hours
    • what do I do? drink plenty of fluids and get rest, if you cant prevent enough fluids to prevent dehydration call your doctor.
    • Prevention: if food is to be stored over 2 hours, keep hot foods over 140 F and cold foods     40 F and under, store cooked food in a wide shallow container and refrigerate as soon as possible
    • produces toxins,multiply quickly at room temperture
  • Clostridium perfingens
    • food sources: beef, poultry and gravies
    • symptoms: diarrhoea and cramps
    • Duration: 24 hours or less, 6-24 hour incubation
    • what do I do? drink plenty of water and get lots of rest, if you can not drink enough fluids to prevent dehydration call your docotor
    • Prevention: thoroughly cook foods especially meat, poultry and gravies. use a food thermometer
      • Keep hot food above 140F or above, if reheating food in the microwave heat to 165 F or above. refrigerate perishable foods within 2 hours. divide left overs into shallow containers and refrigerate immediately, do not let them cool on the counter
        • Outbreaks linked to schools, nursing homes, cafeterias
    • Spores can grow in new cells, cooking doesn't always kill these spores.
    • These bacteria thrive between 40F and 140F the danger zone, they grow quickly at room temperature but not at freezer or refrigerator temperature
    • infections occur when food is cooked in large quantities and kept warm for a long time

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