Food and Nutrition- Macronutrients & Minerals

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  • Food and Nutrition
    • Macronutrient
      • Proteins
        • Protein complementation
          • When you combine two vegetable proteins to get all 9 amino acids that are essential for your body
            • eg. veg and grains
        • protein alternatives
          • eg. soya and tofu.
        • Sources
          • Fish
          • Eggs
          • Meat
        • Low and high biological value proteins
          • HB-  Foods originating from animal sources
            • eg. meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products
          • LB- Foods originating from plants
            • eg. cereals, nuts, seeds, lentils, beans, pulses
        • Deficiency
          • Malnutrition
        • Excess
          • Used to provide your body with energy or turned into fat
        • DRV
          • *Men should eat 55g *Women 45g of protein daily.
        • Function
          • Essential for the body to grow and repair itself
      • Fats
        • Sat & Unsat
          • Sat- Single bond so harder for body to break down (Fat molecules are tightly packed together)
            • eg. butter, cheese, cream
          • Unsat- Double bond- Easier for body to break down
            • Mono unsaturated- *Liquid at room temp, solid when chilled eg. oil
            • Poly unsaturated-  eg. salmon, vegetable oils, and some nuts and seeds
        • Function
          • *Helps body absorb vitaminA, D and E *Provides energy *Helps with wound healing *Insulation- Helps keep body warm
        • Deficiency
          • Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency
        • Excess
          • Obesity & High cholestrol
        • DRV
          • *Men shouldn't have more than 30g of saturated fat a day *Women shouldn't have more than 20g of saturated fat a day *Children should have less
        • Cholesterol
          • *Cholesterol is mostly made by the body in the liver.
          • *It's carried in the blood as: low-density lipoprotein (LDL)high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
      • Carbs
        • Complex/ Starch (polysaccharides)
          • *Made up of sugar molecules that are in long, complex chains *Turned to glucose in the body and used as energy
            • eg. peas, whole grains, and vegetables.
        • Simple/ Sugar (monosaccharides/ disaccharides
          • *Broken down quickly by the body to be used as energy
            • eg. sweets,  syrups, and soft drinks
        • DRV
          • *Over a third of your diet should be made up of starchy foods, such as potatoes, bread, rice and pasta
        • Function
          • *Provides longer- lasting energy  *Contains fibre, calcium, iron and B vitamins
        • Deficiency
          • Ketosis
        • Excess
          • Stored as body fat
        • Fibre
          • *Keeps our bowels healthy *Can help us feel full, which means we're less likely to eat too much
    • Minerals
      • Iron
        • Function
          • Makes red blood cells
        • Sources
          • Meat
          • Beans
          • Liver
        • Deficiency
          • Anemia
        • Excess
          • *Constipation *Vomiting *Stomach pains
        • DRV
          • *8.7mg a day for men over 18 *14.8mg a day for women aged 19-50 years *8.7mg a day for women over 50
      • Calcium
        • Sources
          • Milk
          • Yogurt
          • Cheese
        • Deficiency
          • Rickets
        • Excess
          • *Stomach pains *Diarrhoea.
        • Function
          • Needed for strong teeth and bones
        • DRV
          • *Adults (19-64 years) need 700mg of calcium a day.
      • Sodium (Salt)
        • Function
          • Keeps the level of fluids in the body balanced
        • Sources
          • Savoury snacks
          • Ready meals
          • Meat products eg. bacon
        • Deficiency
          • Hyponatremia
        • Excess
          • High blood pressure- Can lead to strokes and heart attacks
        • DRV
          • No more than 6g of salt (2 tsp) a day
      • Fluoride
        • Function
          • Helps reduce tooth decay
        • Sources
          • Walnuts
          • Dried fruit
          • Dried beans
        • Deficiency
          • Tooth decay
        • Excess
          • Enamel
      • Iodine
        • Function
          • Needed for cells to convert food into energy
        • Sources
          • Organic Yogurt
          • Cranberries
          • Sea vegetables
        • Deficiency
          • Goiter
        • Excess
          • Hyperthyroidism
        • DRV
          • Adults need 0.14mg of iodine a day.

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