Glacial Systems & Landscapes: Fluvioglacial Processes and Landforms

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  • Fluvioglacial Processes and Landforms
    • Formation of Meltwater Streams
      • Warm based glaciers retreat = meltwater
        • Meltwater filters through tunnels
          • Erosive powers = Meltwater streams
    • Fluvioglacial Deposits from Meltwater
      • Meltwater carries sediment
    • Outwash Plains
      • A.K.A Sandur
      • Layers of gravel, sand and clay form where snout used to be
        • Layers: gravel dropped first (heavy) = bottom layer
          • Clay dropped last (lightest) = top layer
            • Sand in middle
              • Layers
            • Layers
        • Sidenote:  layers are formed at snout each time glacier retreats more, not formed by a single deposit
    • Kames and Eskers
      • Eskers = ridges in same direction as glacier
        • Tunnels = sediment
          • Glacier retreats = sediment remains
      • Kames = mounds of sand and gravel
        • Forms on top of glaciers
          • Ice melts = debris dumped
      • Kame Terraces = deposits against valley wall
        • Meltwater streams run between glacier and valley side and deposit sediment
        • Proglacial lakes = meltwater streams dammed by terminal moraine
          • Deltas = entrance to proglacial lake slows down stream so sediment deposits on ice
            • Delta Kames = ice melts, deltas are dumped on valley floor
            • Deltas can also form in crevasses on glacier
              • Delta Kames = ice melts, deltas are dumped on valley floor
    • Warm based glaciers retreat = meltwater
      • Meltwater filters through tunnels
        • Erosive powers = Meltwater streams
    • Eskers = ridges in same direction as glacier
      • Tunnels = sediment
        • Glacier retreats = sediment remains
    • Deltas = entrance to proglacial lake slows down stream so sediment deposits on ice
      • Deltas can also form in crevasses on glacier

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