flood prevention schemes

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  • Flood Prevention Schemes
    • dams - concrete walls regulating discharge by holding it in a reservoir
      • case study - 3 Gorges Dam, China
      • hydroelectric power, irrigation, water supply, navigation
      • expensive, damage in other areas -> relocation, earthquakes
    • channelisation - straightening the channel increasing velocity + widening/deepening to increase capacity of river
      • case study - River Ravensborne
      • effective, good for shipping, water moves faster because travels less distance
      • more erosion downstream, changes ecosystem, visual pollution
    • embankments - raise banks of river to allow more water to flow through
      • case study - Barton by River Trent
      • increased carrying capacity, dual purpose
      • unnatural, expensive, high maintenance, reduce river access
    • floodplain zoning - policies to control urban development close to floodplain, allocating land based on flood risk + importance
      • case study - River Exe, Exeter
      • no buildings damaged, more parks by river
      • doesn't help areas already built on, reduces area that can be built on
    • washlands - area next to river returned back to natural habitat, land for river to flood in without destroying property
      • case study - River Quaggy, Ravensborne
      • natural, used for pitches, low maintenance
      • doesn't stop flooding, pitches ruined
    • flood relief channels - diverting channels increasing capacity
      • case study - River Exe, Exeter
      • increased capacity, take pressure off main channel
      • hard to build, expensive, when empty full of rubbish
    • flood warning systems - early warning of flood
      • case study - Met Office
      • prepares people, save lives + property, cheap
      • doesn't stop flooding, areas with lots of warnings have increased insurance
    • dredging - lowers the bed
      • increases capacity
      • temporary as silt builds up
    • wing dykes

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