Forensics - fingerprints

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  • Created by: Ashlee
  • Created on: 01-05-15 15:06
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  • fingerprints
    • components
      • ridge
      • furrow
        • valleys or depressions between friction ridges
      • scars
      • ridge units
      • sweat pore
      • ridge burfication
      • ridge ending
      • ridge pattern
    • volar pads
      • arch
        • friction ridges enter on one side of the impression and flow out the other side with a rise or wave in the centre
      • loop
        • one or more friction ridges enter upon one side of the pattern area, re-curve and flow out on the same side the friction ridges entered
      • whorl
        • one or more friction ridges that make, or tend to make, a complete circuit, with two deltas
        • at least one recurving friction ridge within the inner pattern area is cut or touched
      • twinned loops
        • two well-defined loops
        • two deltas and the pattern is sub-divided by friction ridge tracing
      • composites
        • combination of patterns and possesses three or more deltas
      • accidentals
        • A pattern that does not conform to that of the arch, loop or whorl
        • possesses characteristics common to all three types
        • a pattern type that conforms to none of the definitions of a pattern
        • two or more deltas in a fully rolled impression
    • automated systems
      • fingerprint form database
      • crime scene mark database
    • processing marks
      • manual comparison
      • Ident1
        • holding, searching and comparing biometric information
        • after arrest
      • ACE-V
        • analysis, comparison, evaluation,followed by verification
      • 3 checks - ACPO requirements
    • analysis
      • substrate - surface
        • surface upon which friction ridge detail is deposited
      • matrix - substance
        • the substance that is actually deposited by the finger and eventually developed
      • developmental medium - powder/chemical
        • aluminium powder or black powder
          • brush
        • magna powder
          • magnetised applicator
        • dependent on the surface type
        • lifted or photographed.
      • deposition pressure - downwards
        • heavier deposition pressure may result in the friction ridges appearing thicker and the furrows appearing very narrow
      • pressure distortion - sideways
      • clarity - presence of detail
        • visual quality of the friction ridge detail
      • other observations - sequences, orientation
    • clarity/level of detail
      • first
        • pattern
          • arrangement of friction ridges formed during foetal growth
        • ridge flow
          • path and arrangement of the friction ridges across the surface of the hands and feet
      • second
        • ridge endings
          • A friction ridge characteristic that comes to a natural stop or finish
        • bifurcations
          • occurs when a friction ridge splits into two and the friction ridges on either side diverge to make room for it
        • permanent creases
        • scars
      • third
        • ridge unit shapes
        • relative position of sweat pores
    • comparison
      • suspect nomination
      • speculative searching
    • streamlined forensic reporting
      • 2013
      • produces forensic evidence
      • reduces costs, delays and bureacracy
      • preserves fairness/confidence
      • proportionate evidence according to needs of case

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