Filtering

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  • Filters
    • Common controls
      • Cut-off frequency
        • The frequency about or below which frequencies will be attenuated (Hz)
      • Centre frequency
        • The point at which a band-pass or notch filter will have the most effect (Hz)
      • Gain
        • By how much a signal is attenuated (dB)
      • Q
        • Bandwidth of frequencies affected by the filter
          • High value = narrow range
          • Low value = wide range
      • Slope
        • How sharply the filter will act at the cut-off
    • LPFs
      • Low Pass Filters
        • Reduces or cuts all frequencies above the cut-off
        • Commonly used on dance music to muffle bass lines
        • May boost the gain of those below
    • HPFs
      • High pass filter
        • Cuts all frequencies below the cut-off
        • May boost the gain of those above
        • A common use of this is a rumble filter, which has a cut-of of around 80Hz and is designed to eliminate unwanted low frequencies
    • Band-Pass Filter
      • Boosts or cuts a pocket of frequencies, with any outside the band being left alone
        • When drawn on a graph, it looks like a bell-curve
        • Width of the band is determined by the Q value, around the centre frequency
        • On common use is a wah-wah pedal, which uses a moving BP that slides up and down the frequency range
    • Notch Filter
      • Essentially a band-pass with a really high Q value, only attenuating a tiny band of frequencies
        • Designed to cut specific frequencies
    • Shelving Filter
      • Work at either end of the frequency range to boost or cut the high or low end
        • Work from the cut-off frequency to the end of the frequency range, applying even attenuation throughout the bandwidth

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