Medicine: Fighting Disease (1800-2000)

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  • Created on: 02-06-13 16:20
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  • Fighting Disease (1800-2000)
    • Jenner and Vaccination (1800's)
      • Before Jenner.
        • Doctors protected people through inoculation
        • Inoculation was dangerous, it can kill the person
        • Inoculation involved inserting a mild dose of smallpox onto the surface of their skin
      • Found out how to vaccinate through observing: Found cowpox.
        • Safer than incoulation
        • Built on later by Pasteur, who discovered vaccinations.
        • It did not kill people, it was very safe on humans,.
      • Factors which helped him:
        • Chance: Jenner offered Dairy made inoculation, she did not need it due to cowpox -> Inspiration.
        • Scientific research: He tested it 23 times to prove it.
        • Government: The British government gave him 30,000 pounds to open a vaccination clinic.
      • Reasons why people opposed vaccination.
        • Scientific reasons: Jenner could not explain how it worked.
        • Financial reasons: inoculators were worried about losing their customers to vaccination.
        • Religious reasons: Some people thought it would be against god's will to put "animal" into their body.
    • Florence NightinGale.
      • Before her work: nurses had poor reputations, hospitals were dirty and people often died from infections.
      • Nightingale's work in the Crimean War.
        • She cut the death rate of British soldiers in hospitals through sanitation and ventilation in hospital wards
      • Her work after the Crimean War.
        • She set up training schools for nurses
        • Changed reputation of nursing, it became a respectable profession
        • She also advised governments on how to improve layouts in hospitals
      • Factors  which helped  Nightingale.
        • War: She was sent to Crimea, to lower the death rate of soldiers,
        • Communication: British papers printed heroic stories of her: Better reputation.
        • Religion: She was inspired to work as a nurse by her belief in God.
      • Factor's which hindered Nightingale.
        • Attitude towards women: Men in the army did not like being told what to do by a woman
        • Her parents tried to stop her from becoming a nurse due to their bad reputation the profession had
        • Nightingale never fully understood disease and based her idea's on the miasma theory,
    • Louis Pasteur.
      • Before Pasteur people did not know the true cause of disease or how the vaccine worked.
      • Pasteur made a big change with 3 discoveries.
        • 1861 ( Germ theory) Proved that germs cause animals disease. Opened the way for other scientists such as Fleming
        • The discovery of how vaccination works: While working on chicken cholera he noticed a mild dose of it would vaccinate them.
          • 1879
        • 1882: Vaccines for Anthrax, rabies and Cholera
      • Factors which helped him.
        • War: Germany France. Pasteur wanted to give France the advantage on the race to beat germs
        • Government:they gave him a team of scientist
        • Science and Technology: used more accurate microscopes for germs
      • Criticism of Pasteur's work;
        • The germ theory was based on animals. Koch discovered the link with humans
        • Pasteur was not the first person to discover vaccines
        • Pasteur used alot of koch's work on identifying germs
        • His discovery of chicken cholera was partly chance
    • Robert Koch.
      • Before Koch nobody knew the specific germs which caused disease.
      • Koch changed this with three discoveries.
        • Staining  Bacteria with dye: Making it easier to work on them
        • Germs caused human diseases: Animals were not the only ones affected
        • A method to prove which germs caused specific disease: He did this by injecting germs and repeating the experiment
      • Factors which helped him:
        • War: between Germany and France, he wanted to give Germany the advantage on the race to beat germs.
        • Government:They gave him a team of scientists
        • Science And technology: he used improved microscopes
        • Individual Brilliance: he repeated an experiment twenty times to prove his idea.
      • Criticism to his work was that alot of his idea's were built off Pasteur's discovery
    • Alexander Fleming's Work.
      • Before Fleming: Early drugs like sulphanomides could only kill one specific illness and had bad side effects
      • Discovered Penicillin 1928: He was studying germs and noticed that Penicillin killed germs.
      • Factors which helped him:
        • Chance: He left some germs in dish where Penicillin got in by accident
        • Individual Brilliance: He was a genius.
        • Communication: He wrote an article about his discovery in a medical journal which spread his idea's
      • Criticisms to his work.
        • He was not the first to see Penicilin
    • Florey and Chain's work.
      • Before: it was impossible to produce enough penicillin to cure internal infections
      • They were able to mass product Penicillin (1938-1941)
        • The found a way of mass producing by using a freeze-dry technique
        • They read Fleming's article
      • Factor's which helped them.
        • Communication
        • Government:American government funded them for five years
        • Drug Companies: After 1941 they set up massive factories to mass produce Penicillin,.
        • WW2, broke out and they funded them due to how useful it was on soldiers.
      • Who Was more important, Florey & Chain or Fleming?
        • Fleming: he was the first to write about the power of penicillin which inspired Florey and Chain
        • Florey and Chain: Fleming was not able to grow enough penicillium mould, if it was not for them, it would have been impossible to use it on humans

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