18th/19th Century

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  • Created by: Musa M
  • Created on: 02-06-13 17:22
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  • 18th/19th Century
    • Women In Medicine
      • Only men were allowed to be educated in medicine.
        • Women was seen as being healers or medicine women who could help heal people with natural remedies.
      • In 1852 the government introduced a registration that required that doctors belong to a college of medicine.
        • Women weren't accepted into these colleges.
    • Public Health in 19th Century
      • They had lack of housing regulations so they were built without care.
        • Back to back houses meant no ventilation.
  • Mary Seacole had to fight against racial prejudice to prove she had a place in medical profession,
    • Women In Medicine
      • Only men were allowed to be educated in medicine.
        • Women was seen as being healers or medicine women who could help heal people with natural remedies.
      • In 1852 the government introduced a registration that required that doctors belong to a college of medicine.
        • Women weren't accepted into these colleges.
    • Came from a mixed background, her dad being a Scottish soldier and her mum being jamaican.
      • This might have been a barrier.
      • Her husband died young, and everything that was his got left to her and she got some respect.
  • Florence Nightingale grew up in a wealthy family and was groomed for a rich man, not to have a career. She believed that God wanted her to be a nurse.
    • Had more rights than black people who were slaves.
      • Came from a mixed background, her dad being a Scottish soldier and her mum being jamaican.
        • This might have been a barrier.
        • Her husband died young, and everything that was his got left to her and she got some respect.
    • She was strong willed and determined.
      • Mary Seacole had to fight against racial prejudice to prove she had a place in medical profession,
      • In 1854 signed up to be a nurse at the war office but got declined due to her race and gender.
        • She instead paid for herself, and treated sick officers and sometimes visited battlefields.
          • She became known as 'Mother Seacole'
      • She became respected and loved when she came back to England, and was one of the first mix raced people to release a book.
        • She became known as 'Mother Seacole'
      • In her book she stated how there should be clean beds, good hygiene and that nursing should be profession.
        • Because of Seacole and Nightingale, Nursing became a profession and by 1900 there was 64,000 trained nurses in Britain.
        • Elizabeth Blackwell got rejected by every university and so had to go into private training.
          • Men in the uni complained that women can't get degrees. Sophia took the uni to court, but lost her case.
            • Sophia Jex-Blake persuaded Edinburgh University to let Blackwell and 3 other woman to be taught in separate classes from men.
              • Elizabeth Blackwell got rejected by every university and so had to go into private training.
                • Men in the uni complained that women can't get degrees. Sophia took the uni to court, but lost her case.
                  • Sophia Jex-Blake persuaded Edinburgh University to let Blackwell and 3 other woman to be taught in separate classes from men.
                    • Sophia went to Switzerland and founded the School of Medicine for women in 1874.
              • Sophia went to Switzerland and founded the School of Medicine for women in 1874.
          • Elizabeth Garret  set up a dispensary for women.
            • Number of families stayed in one room, making it easier for diseases to pass.
              • They had lack of housing regulations so they were built without care.
                • Back to back houses meant no ventilation.
            • A few privys shared with hundreds of people.
              • Toilets overflowed as no one landlords wouldn't pay to empty them.
            • Had a water pump with water that came from dirty rivers.
              • Rubbish wouldn't get emptied.
                • Public Health in 19th Century
                • Sewage added to stench.
                  • Sewage had nowhere to go so sat in the streets.
                • Government believed in 'Laissez-faire'.
                  • Only the aristocracy had the right to vote, so there was no need for what the poor wanted.
                • Didn't understand germs and bacteria.
                  • They thought bad smells caused disease.
                    • In 1848 the first public health cause a set of a board oh health.
                      • In 1853  vaccination against smallpox was made compulsory.
                        • In 1848 the first public health cause a set of a board oh health.
                        • In 1875  Public Health Acts enforced sewage and rubbish to be cleared of the streets.
                          • In 1853  vaccination against smallpox was made compulsory.
                          • Surgery
                            • 18th/19th Century
                              • The problems in surgery was Pain, Bleeding and Infection.
                            • Pain: there was no pain relief, they didn't know had to reduce pain and people could pass out from pain.
                              • The problems in surgery was Pain, Bleeding and Infection.
                              • They made some solutions for pain.
                                • Nitrous Oxide: 1799 Humphry discovered that 'laughing gas' reduced pain, but didn't last long.
                            • Bleeding: They didn't know how to stop the bleeding during surgery.
                              • This caused infection, which made them more ill.
                                • Bleeding: They didn't know how to stop the bleeding during surgery.
                                • They were unhygienic and didn't clean medical instruments after using them.
                                  • Solutions to Infection.
                                    • Ignaz Semmelweiss noticed that women who gave birth on the streets had more problems that women in hospital. He told everyone to wash their hands.
                                • Ether: 1847 Ether was used by J.R Liston on a patient during a leg amputation.
                                  • They made some solutions for pain.
                                    • Nitrous Oxide: 1799 Humphry discovered that 'laughing gas' reduced pain, but didn't last long.
                                  • It was flammable. Had a vile smell that took time to go. Caused coughing and sickness.
                                • Chloroform:  Used by James Simpson, he  poured into some tumblers and he and his assistant inhaled it and were "under the table".
                                  • Used it to help women during childbirth, and other operations. Was the most effective. Queen Victoria used in 1847. But it was seen as against God.
                                    • Chloroform:  Used by James Simpson, he  poured into some tumblers and he and his assistant inhaled it and were "under the table".
                                    • Joseph Lister saw how dirty surgery rooms were and he disinfected everything and all the instruments to reduce infection.
                                      • Solutions to Infection.
                                        • Ignaz Semmelweiss noticed that women who gave birth on the streets had more problems that women in hospital. He told everyone to wash their hands.
                                    • Karl Landsteiner discovered blood groups making blood transfusions possible.
                                      • Scientists added Sodium Citrate to prevent blood from clotting.
                                        • The wealthy didn't see why they had to pay for the poor.
                                          • Only the aristocracy had the right to vote, so there was no need for what the poor wanted.
                                        • There was rapid movements from the countryside and they needed to house them.
                                          • John Snow made the link between water and Cholera.
                                            • Looked at a map showing all the water pumps and saw that people that drank water from the water pump got affected by cholera the most.
                                            • Had a water pump with water that came from dirty rivers.
                                            • Broke a water pipe so that people couldn't get to it, and saw the cholera numbers go down.
                                              • Looked at a map showing all the water pumps and saw that people that drank water from the water pump got affected by cholera the most.
                                            • Edwin Chadwick saw the conditions that people were living in and suggested that the best way to improve people's health was to clean up the streets.
                                            • Also that water supply and drainage must be improved. And that every district should have a medical officer.
                                              • Edwin Chadwick saw the conditions that people were living in and suggested that the best way to improve people's health was to clean up the streets.
                                            • The government did nothing.
                                              • Also that water supply and drainage must be improved. And that every district should have a medical officer.
                                              • 1876 there was a new law against polluting the river, and the quality of buildings.
                                                • In 1875  Public Health Acts enforced sewage and rubbish to be cleared of the streets.
                                                • Pasteur's germ theory proved the link between dirt and disease.

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