feminism

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  • feminism
    • liberal feminism
      • how to change society through laws, policies and cultural change
      • sex and gender
        • sex: biological differences between men and women
        • gender: culturally constructed differences - feminine vs masculine roles
        • sex differences: fixed, gender differences vary between cultures
      • instrumental vs expressive roles
        • instrumental: performed in the public sphere of paid work, politics and decision making
        • expressive: performed in private sphere of domestic work, childrearing, caring for family
      • evaluation
        • criticised for over- optimism
        • ignore the possibility that there are other structures causing oppression
          • eg. capitalism
    • radical feminism
      • patriarchal society, men dominate women
      • sexuality
        • patriarchy constructs sexuality to satisfy men's desires
        • sex is social, not biological
        • women are seen as sexual objects
      • change
        • separatism: men's oppression of women is through domestic and sexual relationships
          • living apart from men leads to female independence
        • consciousness raising: through sharing experiences in women only groups, women can see that other women face the same problems
        • political lesbianism
          • lesbianism is the only non-oppressive form of sexuality
          • sleeping with the man = sleeping with the enemy
      • evaluation
        • unlikely to be achievable
          • heterosexual attraction makes it unlikely that nuclear family will be replaced
    • marxist feminism
      • capitalism oppresses women, not men
      • subordination of men
        • women are a source of cheap labour
        • women are a reserve army of labour
        • women reproduce the labour force
        • women absorb anger
          • they are the takers of **** from their husband
      • barrett: the ideology of familism
        • must give more emphasis to women's consciousness and motivations and the role of capitalism in maintaining their oppression
        • familism: society makes women think that everyone should have a family
        • need to overthrow capitalism and familism
      • evaluation
        • non- capitalist societies ignored
    • difference feminism
      • false universality
        • not all women share the same experiences
        • women are not one group
      • safe haven
        • ethnic minority women see family as safe
          • no racism
      • essentialism
        • difference feminists say women don't share the same essence- all different
      • evaluation
        • liberal feminists- allows bigger campaigns for change for all women

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