Female reproductive system

  • Created by: Saoirse
  • Created on: 22-10-14 12:18
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  • Female reproductive system
    • Uterine/Fallopian tubes
      • transport secondary oocyte to uterus
      • Narrow tube extending from ovary to uterus
        • lies between folds of broad ligaments
      • Anatomy
        • Infundibulum: open funnel shaped portion near ovary
        • Fimbrae: moving finger like processess
        • Ampulla: central region of tube where sperm encounters secondary oocyte
        • Isthmus: narrowest portion joining uterus
      • Histology - 3 layers
        • mucosa: ciliated columnar epithelium with secretory (peg) cells
          • provide nutruents and cilia move ovum
          • Untitled
        • muscularis: circular and longitudinal smooth muscle
          • peristalsis moves ovum to uterus
        • serosa: outer serous membrane
    • Uterus
      • site of implantation of fertilised ovum
      • source of menstrual flow
      • Mechanical protection, nutritional support and waste removal for fetus
      • muscular contractions to eject fetus at birth
      • usually anteflexion position - projects anteriorly and superiorly over urinary bladder
      • stabilised by round, cardinal and uterosacral ligaments
      • Anatomy
        • Body: largest portion, ends at isthmus
        • Fundus: rounded portion of body, superior to uterine tube attachment
        • Cervix: inferior portion between uterus and vagina
      • Histology
        • Perimetrium: incomplete serous membrane, continuous with peritoneal lining
        • Myometrium: thick outer muscular layer that contacts in response to oxytocin
        • Endometrium: thinner, outer glandular layer that supports growing fetus
          • 2 parts - Functional zone: lost during menstruation, changes due to hormones during uterine cycle. contains most uterine glands
          • Basilar zone: attaches endo to myometrium and is a permanent layer
    • Cervix
      • inferior portion between uterus and vagina
      • mucosa contains secretory cells
        • Cervical mucus = water, glycoproteins, lipids, enzymes and inorganic salts
        • Composition of mucus varies throughout cycle
          • ovulation: less viscous + more alkaline = sperm friendly
          • other times: viscous, forms cervical plug
    • Ovaries
      • Produce immature gametes (oocytes) and hormones: progesterone, oestrogen, relaxin and inhibin
      • Histology
        • Visceral peritoneum: columnar epithelial cells covering each ovary
        • Stroma (interior tissues) divided into 2
          • Superficial cortex: where gametes are produced
          • Deeper medulla: connective tissues, blood + lymphatic vessels
        • Ovarian follicles: oocytes in varying stages of development plus surrounding cells = follicular cells (early dev) or granulosa (late dev) which support and nourish oocyte
        • Graafian (mature) follicle: fluid filled follicle that ruptures to release secondary follicle at ovulation
        • Corpus luteum: remnants of


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