B4 - Farming

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  • Created by: Naomi
  • Created on: 20-01-13 20:50
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  • Farming
    • The use of pesticides such as insecticides, fungicides and herbicides has disadvantages
      • They can enter and accumulate in food chains, causing a lethal dose to predators (bioaccumlation)
      • They can harm other organisms living nearby which are not pests
      • Some are persistent (take a very long time to break down and become harmless)
    • Organic farming
      • Does not use artificial fertilisers or pesticides, instead it uses
        • Animal manure and compost
        • Crop rotation (to avoid a build up of crop pests)
        • Nitrogen fixing crops as part of the rotation
        • Varied seed planting times to get a longer crop time and avoid certain times of the life cycle of insect pests
    • Biological control uses living organisms to contol pests
      • Avoids the disadvantages of artificial insecticides and as they are using living organisms, once they are introduced they do not need replacing
      • Introducing a species into a habitat to kill another species can affect the food source of other organisms in a food web, causing unexpected results
    • Hydroponics and intensive farming
      • Intensive farming, which makes use of artificial pesticides and fertilisers is very efficient in producing large crop yields cheaply
        • However intensive farming raises concerns about animal cruelty and the effects of extensive use of chemicals on soil structure and other organisms
      • However intensive farming raises concerns about animal cruelty and the effects of extensive use of chemicals on soil structure and other organisms
      • Plants can be grown without soil using hydroponics
        • This system uses a regulated recycling flow of aerated water containing minerals and is usually done in glasshouses and polytunnels
        • It is especially useful in areas of barren soil or low rainfall
        • Being a soil-free system, hydroponics has better control over mineral levels and disease
        • Many plants can be grown in a small space
        • As there is no anchorge for plants when using water, artificial fertilisers are used
      • Intensive farming improves the efficiency of energy transfer in food chains involving humans by reducing or removing  competing organisms such as pests and weeds
      • By keeping the animals warm in sheds or barns, they use less energy to keep warm and kore on growth and reproduction

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