Sociology- FAMILY Revision

I hope this is of some use, not completed yet but will aim to complete it by Tuesday.

Jasper :)

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  • Created by: Irammm
  • Created on: 10-05-13 20:22
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  • FAMILY
    • Changes in the  British Family:
      • less extended families, more nuclear families.
      • Families  over the years have become more symetrical
      • more child centered & smaller than before
      • emergence of lone parent families
    • Roles/ functions of the family, & how they've changed over time.
      • Reproduction
        • Children were the main reason for marriage
          • to increase family work force and the amount of profit made
            • Children were viewed as parents pension policy (they would look after parents
        • Change: number of children being born outside marriage is increasing
          • Society= secularization(less religious, society's views have changed
          • less pressure from older relatives to keep 'moral standard' also resulted in decrease of extended families
          • Welfare state, women can support child without family
      • Education
        • Many children from Working class back-grounds would be poorly educated by today's standards as education had to be paid for.
          • Change: free & compulsory education up to 16, family does have a major impact on child's achievements
      • Income/ Work
        • children would learn to trade, or go into service as servants
        • Change: skills are now learnt in school & at place of work
      • Primary socialization & social control of children
        • First place where kids learn how to behave, whats acceptable & not in society
        • Change: playgroups & education system (family still responsible for the very young but is now changing)
      • Help & care for the young, sick & elderly
        • Change: NHS is free, social services available, also the Welfare State provides benefits/ pensions for old peoples homes if family  are unable to.
    • What is the role of the family ? Different approaches.
      • MARXISTS
        • Children born into rich families grow up to be rich, while poor children become poor adults
        • It's through process of socialization that Working class children learn to accept this unequal position in society.
        • Family=social inequality is reproduced from one generation to the next.
        • Society is unfair in many aspects such as education & family.
      • THE NEW RIGHT APPROACH.
        • Supporters of family values are against gay relationships,sexual freedom, some sex education & often abortion.
        • It's the families responsibility to care for the old, sick, unemployed or homeless family members.
        • They say its the women's role to be the carer whilst the man is the breadwinner
        • Nuclear family is best for children as they are more happier, healthier & do better educationally & socially than children of single parents
        • New Right sociologists argue family values are declining & that the family is in crisis.
      • FUNCTIONLISTS
        • NUCLEAR FAMILY IS BEST FOR SOCIETY
          • Children are raised by two monogamousadults
          • Parents expected to be faithful to each other.
          • Nuclear family is seen as a way of controlling adult sexual behaviour.
          • Reproduction:society needs new kids if it is to survive
        • Primary socialization  its the role of family to teach kids to fit into society, (norms & values) family= informal agency of social control.
        • Emotional gratification & nurture, family is to provide adults & kids with a safe, supportive, loving environment to grow up in.
        • Economic provision, nuclear family is one way of providing financial support. Family members work together  to provide shelter, food ect for all family members.
      • FEMEMNIST
        • Family is one way where men in society continue to maintain power and dominance over women
        • Although biological differences exists between men & women, most differences are created by society
        • Primary socialization
          • Boys & girls are taught to behave according to their gender. Boys=match & tough, Girls=passive & caring
        • Families are patriarchal. Males in family benefit whilst women loose out.
          • Feminists say that these inequalities are unacceptable & that there should be more equality at home.
    • REASONS FOR COHABITATION
      • Women have become more independent & career minded
        • May see marriage as restrictive
      • More socially acceptable, society has become less religious (SECULARIZATION)
        • Media images...
      • Weddings are expensive
      • Birth before marriage is now more acceptable & more common
      • Cohabitation is almost a 'trial run' to see if the couple can make the marriage work .
      • Cohabitation is a couple who are living together who are not married.
    • HOW CAN WE EXPLAIN THE RISE IN DIVORCE RATES?
      • Higher expectations of marriage
        • Media responsible for creating 'perfect' image of a marriage.
          • Today=more emphasis on romantic/ equality relationship. Previously it was on security & kids.
            • Today the emphasis has changed to one of companion-ship, understanding & sexual compatibility.
      • Changing social attitudes
        • Divorce no longer stigmatized  no longer an outrage
        • Divorce=more socially acceptable
        • People more likely to seek a divorce rather than remain in an empty shell marriage
      • The changing role of women
        • 3/4 divorce petitions= women, their unhappy with marriage then men. women's expectations have risen.
          • Employment in women have risen led to symmetrical family household. couples take equal conjugal roles, women not expected to be solely responsible for household.
            • Women have more financial independence.
      • Growing Secularisation
        • Decline of religious belief
        • Less vows made before God, people more likely to consider breaking vows as morally wrong.
        • Less religious significance is attached to the marriage.
      • Changes to law, made divorce easier to obtain.
        • The Divorce Law Reform Act (1969)
          • Couple only needed to prove 'irretrievable breakdown' of marriage(the marriage can't be saved)
      • Growth in Nuclear famiily
        • Thee's less pressure from elders to remain married
        • During marital crisis, it's less easy for couples to seek advise from older relatives who are living within the sitaution
      • Increasing life  expectancy
        • people are living longer, more time for them to get fed up of each other!
    • MECHANIZATION:
      • Production of goods by machines, they take over the manual skills involved in production
    • Causes of the Symmetrical Family.
      • INCREASED INTEREST IN HOME LIFE
        • DIY & home based leisure. Men spend more time at home & becoming more involved with the family.
      • INCREASE IN MALE UMEMPLOY-MENT
        • more husbands are involved in domestic tasks- housework & childcare
      • RISE IN FEMENISM
        • Impact on role relationships,
          • equal opportunities for men & women which led to rejection of the traditional housewife role.
      • EFFECTCTIVE  CONTRACEP-TION
        • women have fewer children
          • Families are planned, women have careers, financial independence & status=greater equality at home
    • TYPES OF FAMILIES, DO YOU KNOW THEM ALL ?  WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF THEM?
      • Reconstituted Families
      • Lone parent, usually result of divorce/ separation  more socially acceptable.
      • Empty nest, children have grown up & left home
      • Extended family: 3 generations living together [vertically extended]
        • Horizontally extended:  relatives of the same generation eg: two brothers, their wives & children living together
      • Dual worker families
      • Nuclear family,  made up of man, women &  their dependent children
      • Same sex families
  • Primary socialization & social control of children
    • First place where kids learn how to behave, whats acceptable & not in society
    • Change: playgroups & education system (family still responsible for the very young but is now changing)
  • FUNCTIONLISTS
    • NUCLEAR FAMILY IS BEST FOR SOCIETY
      • Children are raised by two monogamousadults
      • Parents expected to be faithful to each other.
      • Nuclear family is seen as a way of controlling adult sexual behaviour.
      • Reproduction:society needs new kids if it is to survive
    • Primary socialization  its the role of family to teach kids to fit into society, (norms & values) family= informal agency of social control.
    • Emotional gratification & nurture, family is to provide adults & kids with a safe, supportive, loving environment to grow up in.
    • Economic provision, nuclear family is one way of providing financial support. Family members work together  to provide shelter, food ect for all family members.
  • REASONS FOR COHABITATION
    • Women have become more independent & career minded
      • May see marriage as restrictive
    • More socially acceptable, society has become less religious (SECULARIZATION)
      • Media images...
    • Weddings are expensive
    • Birth before marriage is now more acceptable & more common
    • Cohabitation is almost a 'trial run' to see if the couple can make the marriage work .
    • Cohabitation is a couple who are living together who are not married.
  • EFFECTCTIVE  CONTRACEP-TION
    • women have fewer children
      • Families are planned, women have careers, financial independence & status=greater equality at home

Comments

Abigail

I really like this is it for A level btw?

Irammm

Abigail- Hi, Nope this was created for GCSEs, I am doing AS Level Sociology and will not be studying this topic at all (Sorry). Are there any other topics you'd like me to do? 

Iraaam

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