Family and households - trends

  • Created by: cathwxx
  • Created on: 06-05-18 19:06
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  • Family and Households - Demographic trends and patterns
    • Explanations for few births
      • Attitudes have changed towards having children outside of marriage.
      • There are more contraceptive methods
      • Individuals have more freedom
        • women now see other possibilities in life apart from the traditional role of housewife and mother.
      • There are more educational opportunities for women.
    • Divorce
      • Changes in laws have made divorce easier (Divorce Reform Act 1969)
        • Changes in social attitudes mean that divorce is more acceptable.
      • Changes in women's lives mean that women don't have to stay in unhappy marriages.
      • Some believe that the increase in divorces reflects the increasing value people place on value.
    • Ageing population
      • average age of UK population is rising
      • fewer young people and more older people
      • number of pensioners living alone has rised
      • Health services has improved
      • Increasing numbers of pensioners puts a strain on the NHS because pensioners use health services more than younger people
      • An ageing population means the dependency ratio has increased – there are fewer working aged people around to support pensioners.
    • Emigration
      • the act of leaving one's own country to settle permanently in another; moving abroad.
      • main reasons for emigration have been economic
        • un employment at home, and  factors such as higher wages or better opportunities abroad.
    • Deaths
      • There are several reasons why the death rate declined during the 20th century.
        • improved nutrition and medical improvement
          • The decline of more dangerous manual jobs such as mining
          • Smaller families reduced the rate of transmission of infection  Greater public knowledge of the causes of illness  Higher incomes, allowing for a healthier lifestyle.
  • Changes in fertility
    • smaller families mean that women are more likely to be free to go out to work, thus creating the dual earner couple typical of many professional families.
    • A lower birth rate means fewer schools and maternity and child health services may be needed. It also has implications for the cost of maternity and paternity leave, or the types of housing that need to be built.


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